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Flashcards in ECGs Deck (37)
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1

What does myocardial damage present as in an ECG?

A raised ST segment

2

What leads represent the Lateral leads (left lateral wall)?

I, aVL, V5 and V6

3

What leads represent the Inferior leads?

II, III and aVF

4

What leads represent the Anterior leads?

V3 and V4

5

What leads represent the Septal leads?

V1 and V2

6

What axis does lead I compare?

aVR - aVL

7

What axis does lead II compare?

aVR - aVF

8

What axis does lead III compare?

aVL - aVF

9

What is the major conduction pathway in the heart?

SA - AV - His - BB's - Purkinje

10

Why is lead II best to monitor?

Hearts depolarisation is in the same axis as the lead

11

What mechanically does a p wave represent?

Atrial contraction

12

What mechanically does the QRS complesx represent?

Ventricular contraction

13

What mechanically does the T wave represent?

Relaxation of the myocardium

14

How much time does one large box represent?

0.2 seconds

15

How much time does one small box represent?

0.04 seconds

16

What does the P-R interval represent?

The timescale of atrial activity
(atrial depolarisation)

17

What does the QRS complex represent?

Time taken for full ventricular myocardium depolarisation

18

What does the Q - T interval represent?

Total duration of ventricular activity (depolarisation and repolarisation)

19

What lead is always negative in a normal ECG?

aVR

20

What can 'pathological q waves' represent?

LBBB
aMI (late sign)
Scar tissue
Conduction issues

21

What can an increased PR interval represent?

AV node blocks

22

What can a decreased PR interval represent?

Wolff-Parkinson-White

23

What can a prolonged QT interval lead to?

Torsades de Pointes

24

What can pronlonged QRS intervals be a sign of?

Bundle Branch Blocks
PVC
Venricular Rhythms

25

What does ST depression likely indicate?

Ischaemia (narrowing for a coronary artery)

26

What does ST elevation likely indicate?

Necrosis of the myocardium
(MI)

27

What occurs in sinus arrhythmia?

Sinus with a variable rate
HR increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration

28

What causes sinus arrhytmia?

SA node pacemaker activity varies reflexively with respiration

29

What is 'p pulmonale' and what does it indicate?

Tall peaked p wave indicating R atrium enlargement

30

What is 'p mitrale' and what does it indiicate?

Broad notched p wave
indicating LA enlargement (mitral valve disease)