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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (36):
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Predator

an animal that naturally preys on others

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Herbivore

an animal that feeds on plants.

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Carnivore

an animal that feeds on flesh.

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Omnivore

an animal or person that eats food of both plant and animal origin.

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Producer

The first trophic level in a food chain in which it serves as a food source for consumers or for higher trophic levels.

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Consumer

An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources; a heterotroph.

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Biome

A major ecological community of organisms adapted to a particular climatic or environmental condition on a large geographic area in which they occur.

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Ecosystem

A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit.

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Organism

An individual living thing that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis. It can be a virus, bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or an animal.

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Predation

A form of symbiotic relationship between two organisms of unlike species in which one of them acts as predator that captures and feeds on the other organism that serves as the prey.

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Symbiosis

The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other

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Parasitism

A form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). The association may also lead to the injury of the host.

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Mutualism

A symbiotic relationship between individuals of different species in which both individuals benefit from the association.

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Commensalism

A form of symbiosis between two organisms of different species in which one of them benefits from the association whereas the other is largely unaffected or not significantly harmed or benefiting from the relationship.

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Ecology

A branch of biology that deals with the distribution, abundance and interactions of living organisms at the level of communities, populations, and ecosystems, as well as at the global scale.

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Biodiversity

The existence of a wide range of different types of organisms in a given place at a given time. The diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole).

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Food web

A food web is many food chains linked together to show a more accurate model of all possible feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem.

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Food chain

feeding hierarchy in which organisms in an ecosystem are grouped into trophic (nutritional) levels and are shown in a succession to represent the flow of food energy and the feeding relationships between them.

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Invasive species

Non-native species disrupting and replacing native species.

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Nonnative species

Originating in a different region and acclimated to a new environment; - of plants or animals.

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Sustainability

the property of being sustainable.

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Trade-off

a balance achieved between two desirable but incompatible features; a compromise.

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Fishery

a place where fish are reared for commercial purposes.
the occupation or industry of catching or rearing fish.

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Decomposer

an organism, esp. a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.

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Zooplankton

plankton consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals.

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Phytoplankton

plankton consisting of microscopic plants.

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Plankton

the small and microscopic organisms drifting or floating in the sea or fresh water, consisting chiefly of diatoms, protozoans, small crustaceans, and the eggs and larval stages of larger animals.

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Abiotic

Non-living

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Biotic

Living

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Energy Pyramid

A diagram that shows the flow of energy through an ecosystem

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Carrying Capacity

the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment

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Exponential Curve

A graph of an exponential function.

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Growth rate

The rate, or speed, at which the number of organisms in a population increases.

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Limiting factor

A limiting factor limits the growth or development of an organism, population, or process.

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Density dependent factor

In population ecology, density-dependent processes occur when population growth rates are regulated by the density of a population. This article will focus on density-dependence in the context of macroparasite life cycles.

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Density independent factor

Referring to any characteristic that is not affected by population density