Ecology Flashcards Preview

Science Grade 10 > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (103):
1

Changes in the way that humans view the world

Paradigm Shifts

2

Means that the system can meet the needs not only of our present human population, but also those of the future

Sustainability

3

The way that humans view the world

Paradigm

4

is the scientific study of the interactions of organisms and their enviroment

Ecology

5

is a community of organisms and the physical enviroment in which it lives

Ecosystem

6

are nonliving factors which affect life in any ecosystem

Abiotic factors

7

Abiotic Factors include:

Space- all organisms require enough space or territory
Temperature- enviromental temperature affects biological processes and the ability of most organisms to regulate their temperature
Oxygen- organisms require oxygen for cellular respiration, which is a process that releases energy from food
Sunlight- is the ultimate source of energy for all photosynthetic organisms which in turn provide the resources for other living things
Water- is necessary for all life
Inorganic and Organic Soil Nutrients- promote the growth of bacteria, fungi, and a host of other organisms beneficial to the soil

8

living environment and include all other organisms that interact with the individual both of the same species and all other species

Biotic Factors

9

another word for a cold blooded organism

Ectotherm

10

another word for a warm blooded organism

Endotherm

11

biotic factors include:

Detritus- is decomposing matter
Diesease- infection by fungi, bacteria, virus, and other pathogens
Predator/Prey- is an animal that kills and eats another animal for food, the prey is the hunted animal
Competition- is a struggle for survival that occurs between two organisms either of the same or different species

12

INTRAspecific

within the species

13

intERspecific

between different species

14

biotic relationships in which two different organisms live in close association with each other to the benefit of at least one

Symbiotic Relationships

15

is the type of symbiosis resulting in mutual benefit to both of the organisms in the relationship

ex: the fungi penetrate the roots of plants and make soil nitrogen, receiving carbohydrates in return

Mutualism

16

relationship in which one organism benefits from the relationship but the other organism seems to neither be harmed nor benefited

Commensalism

17

relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed. the organism that benefits is called the parasite, the organism that is harmed is called the host

Parasitism

18

is similar to parasitism, one organism benefits but the other is eventually killed a sort of slow death

Parisitoidism

19

is where the interaction is beneficial to one species and detrimental to the other

Predation

20

The five trophic structures are:

1. Primary Producers
2. Primary Consumers
3. Secondary Consumers
4. Tertiary Consumers
5. Decomposers

21

refers to the feeding relationships within the ecosystem

Trophic Structures

22

another word for a producer

Autotroph

23

organisms that obtain nutrients from other organisms, they can not synthesize their own food so they must obtain it ready made

Consumers

24

are organisms of decay, these are also called saprobes

Decomposers

25

animals that feed only on plants

Herbivores

26

animals that feed on other animals

Carnivores

27

animals that feed on both plants and animals

Omnivore

28

light colors that reflect

Albedo

29

a biological process, uses the energy of sunlight to manufacture sugar

Photosynthesis

30

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight energy -------> C6H12O6 + 6O2


what is this formula called?

Photosynthesis

31

Photosynthesis and ___________ are necessary for each other

Cellular Respiration

32

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + H2O


what does this formula represent?

Cellular Respiration

33

about ___ % of the energy stored in one trophic level is actually transferred to the next trophic level

10

34

dry mass is known as

Biomass

35

is a graphical representation of the total biomass of all the members of each trophic level

Pyramid of Biomass

36

means that there is an ecological balance between the various organisms that make up the food web, and because of this balance the ecosystem is self-sustaining over long periods of time

Stability

37

the total amount of living species

Biodiversity

38

a ____________ species is considered so important to the stability of the ecosystem, that if there was a decline in that species, the community would not be able to maintain its stability and may even collapse

Keystone

39

refers to the series of ecological changes that every community undergoes over long periods of time

Ecological sucession

40

a final, sustainable, stable, or self-perpetuating community, of dominant organisms is known as a _____________ community


is also the final stage of ecological sucession

Climax Community

41

refers to a sequence beginning in an area where there is no soil or previous forms of life

Primary Sucession

42

occurs in an area in which an existing community has been partially destroyed and its balance upset

Secondary Sucession

43

Important enviromental conditions that affect sucession include:

•climate
•soil
•geographical features

44

Causes of upset in ecological succession are:

•natural
•human influenced

45

refers to the role that a species plays within its ecosystem

Niche

46

refers to the place where an organism lives

Habitat

47

exists in every ecosystem

Competition

48

competition between the same species is called

intraspecific competition

49

competition between different species is called

interspecific competition

50

a wildlife species that no longer exists

Extinct

51

a wildlife species that no longer exists in canada, but occuring elsewhere

Extirpated

52

a wildlife species facing a imminent extirpation or extinction

Endangered

53

a wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered wildlife species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats

Special Concern

54

a wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances

Not At Risk

55

are scientists who study the type of chemical compounds that are found in living things

Biochemists

56

biological processes include:

•respiration
•decomposation
•excretion
•photosynthesis
•assimilation

57

in which the atmosphere is gradually heating up

Enhanced greenhouse effect

58

is essential for the production of amino acids used to synthesize proteins, and nucleic acids which are used to carry the hereditary or genetic code

Nitrogen

59

The atmosphere is about ___ % nitrogen gas

78

60

Two points of nitrogen fixation:

•lightning
•bacteria

61

is the process which plants use the nitrate ions to make amino acids, proteins, and DNA

Assimliation

62

process by which bacteria and some fungi break down these nitrogen compounds to make ammonia

Ammonification

63

nitrites are changed to nitrogen gas which returns to the atmosphere

Denitrification

64

The earth's atmosphere contains ___ % oxygen

21

65

is a form of oxygen

Ozone

66

human activites have led to the destruction of the ozone layer, which is called

Ozone Depletion

67

What is depleting the ozone layer?

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

68

some of this deflected energy is retained within the atmosphere of the earth by _____________ _______ which prevent the energy from passing into space, thereby preserving heat

Greenhouse gases

69

A lake that:
•is a deep blue
•contains high oxygen
•low nutrients

Oligotrophic

70

A lake that:
•is shallow and green
•has low oxygen levels
•high nutrients

Eutrophic

71

_______________ were used in the manufacture of laundry detergents

Phosphates

72

include seasonal peaks in temperature, sudden changes in water supply, or sudden but limited human impact

Short term stress

73

climate change (global warming), infestation by foreign plants and animals (exotic species), and permanent human influence (habitat destruction, acid deposition, etc.) are all examples of _____________________

Long term change

74

a non-renewable resource

Soil

75

the uppermost layer known as _____________ and consists of fine textured and organic material known as humus

Topsoil

76

Below the topsoil is the layer known as the _____________ is more coarse textured and has less organic material

Subsoil

77

below these two layers is the __________, which is not considered a soil layer, but the support for all the layers above

Bedrock

78

Factors which affect the ability of soil to support plant life are:

•soil fertility
•water storing capacity
•soil pH
•salinity
•porosity to air (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide)

79

a large geographical region that has a particular type of climax community

Biome

80

factors of biome distribution:

•latitude
•altitude
•soil
•temperature
•precipitation
•light

81

The four terrestrial biomes are:

•taiga
•tundra
•deciduous forest
•grassland biomes

82

living organisms that are not wanted around us

Pests

83

pesticides who were fat-soluble leads to a problem known as

Bioaccumulation

84

What is IPM?

Integrated Pest Management

85

makes use of chemical pesticides in the control of insect pests

Chemical control

86

The first problem of chemical control is:

bioaccumulation

87

the second problem of chemical control is:

that the use of chemical pesticides kills most but not all of the pest population, leaving those pets which are resistant to reproduce a new population

88

the third problem of chemical control is:

related to the lack of specificity which means that the chemical pesticide tends to kill beneficial organisms as well as the pest organism targeted

89

makes use of natural predators, disease organisms, or competitors to reduce the size of the pest population

Biological control

90

The least three disadvantages of the use of bacteria are:

•the bacteria are washed off
•they become less effective after a few days
•bacteria tends to be expensive

91

are chemical "perfumes" produced by the female to attract a male

Pheromones

92

DDT is

bioaccumulation

93

fat-soluble pesticides:

-> dissolves in fat
-> stay in the food chain because they stay in the fatty cells/tissues of organisms
-> passed on to offspring in breastmilk also found in egg shells

94

water-soluble pesticides:

-> dissolves in water
-> washed away in ecosystem

95

Nitrogen is

N2

96

Nitrate is

NO3-

97

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria is:

N2 -> NH3 -> NH4+

98

Nitrifying Bacteria is:

NH4+ -> NO2- -> NO3-

99

Denitrifying Bacteria is:

N2

100

-cold desert
-precipitation:snow
-polar bear, musktax, arctic hare
-climax community:shrubs
-permafrost:permanently frozen soil

Tundra

101

-precipitation:rain and snow
-climax community: conifers (fir, spruce)
-moose, bear, rabbit

Taiga

102

-moderate precipitation:rain
-climax community: deciduous trees--(leaf, bearing, oak, maple)
-squirrels, birds, owls, hawks, deer

Temperature Deciduous

103

-higher precipitation:rain
-climax community:grasses
-bison, buffalo, deer, rodents, grasshoppers

Grassland