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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (42):
1

Ecology

How organisms interact with their environment

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Biotic

Living things

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Population

One species in one place

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Community

Many species in one place

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Ecosystem

Interaction of the community with the environment

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Biosphere

Portion of the earth where life exists

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Lithosphere

Earth's surface

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Hydrosphere

Water

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Atmosphere

Air

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Abiotic

Non-living

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Limiting factors

Biotic or abiotic factors in the environment that limit the size of a population

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Carrying capacity

The maximum number of organisms of a particular species that an ecosystem can support

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Heterotrophs

Organisms that obtain performed food - ingest, digest, absorb, egest

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Herbivore

Eats only plants

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Carnivore

Eats only animals

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Predator

Hunts, attacks and eats prey

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Scavenger

Feeds on dead

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Omnivore

Eats both plants and meat

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Saprophyte

Decomposers that get their nutrition by breaking down dead remains

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Autotroph

Organisms that produce their own food

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Photosynthetic

Using sunlight to produce organic glucose

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Chemosynthetic

Making food using chemicals

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Symbiotic relationships

At least one organisms benefits by the relationship

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Mutualism

Both benefit

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Commensalism

One benefits and ones unaffected

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Parasitism

One benefits and ones harmed

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Food chain

Shows the flow whereby one organisms consumes another

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Food web

Overlapping food chains

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Producer

Autotroph, plant, bottom of the pyramid and first in the food chain

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Consumer

Eats other organisms

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Decomposer = Saprophyte

Breaks down dead matter for nutrition ex: bacteria

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Cycles

. Water cycle

. Oxygen/ carbon dioxide cycle

. Nitrogen cycle

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Competition in ecosystems

. Habitat - place where organism lived

. Niche- job or role in ecosystem

. Infraspecific competition - competition between two different species

. Interspecific competition - competition between two different species

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Stable ecosystems must have the following:

1. Cycling of materials

2. Autotrophs (plants)

3. Constant source of energy (sun)

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Ecological succession

One community takes over another

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Dominant species

Most powerful

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Climax community

Final stable community

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Primary succession

First time it goes through all the stages

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Terrestrial

Succession on land

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Aquatic

Succession in lakes and ponds

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Secondary succession

Second time it goes through all the stages. Typically due to natural disaster

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Biodiversity

The variety of species in a particular area