Flashcards in Economic Approaches III: Trade and complex risk governance: Science vs. precautionary risk approaches Deck (29):
What is the Vogel text about?
It is about the different policies in EU and US in regards to consumer and environmental risks - whether they had a scientific or precautionary approach
Which policy shift does Vogel talk about?
In the 90's the US was more restrictive than EU, but after that EU has become the more restrictive. However, on the areas where the US put restrictions back before the 90s, they are still the most restrictive
What was the policy shift marked by?
The Rio Earth Summit in 1992, after which the US have not ratified 12 environmental agreements
What are the current transatlantic trade disputes about?
The US has complained about the EU regulations, and EU has asked WTO to recognize the precautionary principle
What impact does the EU regulations have?
They have a global impact since many countries have adopted them to gain access to the EU's internal market (e.g. through trading up = living up to EU regulations, that are not necessary in home country)
The more countries that adopts them, the more legitimate they become
What is the difference between a scientific and a precautionary approach?
Scientific approach is about approving a new product if no risks have been found. Precautionary approach is about not approving unless it has been proved, that there is no chance of risk (roughly)
What is the critique of a precautionary approach?
Restrictions might end up being based on public fears or phantom risks
What kinds of errors are prevented in scientific or precautionary approach?
In the scientific the US tries to avoid type 1 errors (false positives): avoiding unnecessary costs e.g. to testing
In the precautionary the EU tries to avoid type 2 (false negatives): avoiding potential dangers
What does Vogel mean by 'risk-risk tradeoffs'?
That by minimizing the risk of type 1 errors, the risk of type 2 increases and vice versa.
E.g. not approving a drug that could help people or invading Iraq because of lack of evidence of no harm
What approach does Vogel argue for?
None, he is not normative. He says that which one you prefer is a question of policy preferences and values
Which four outcomes does Stirling put up for risks?
Risks (known propability/known outcome)
Uncertainty (unknown prop./known outcome)
Ambiguity (difficult prop/unknown outcome)
Ignorance (cannot be predicted / unknown outcome)
Is the ignorance categories risks?
No, that would be irrational to say so
Can one make decisions based on the precautionary principle a.t Stirling?
No, it is not a methodology or a protocol for decision-making but a principle. It is a normative guideline on how to make decisions under uncertainty, ambiguity and ignorance that benefits humans and environment instead of economic interests
What is the problem with a science based approach a.t. Stirling?
That people try to imply it to other problematics than risks
Where does the precautionary principle stem from?
The Rio Decleration (from rio earth summit 1992)
What is the Deere-Birkbeck text about?
It is about global risk governance in regards to climate change. She ends up proposing a research agenda for improving global risk governance
Which two dimensions does Deere-Birkbeck see in regards to climate risk management?
A political and a managerial due to the international and geopolitical tensions. It often ends up being a question of placing responsibility between unequal players
Why the focus on sustainable development?
Came from the realisation that climate changes and social problems overlapped. However now there is an increased uncertainty about the climate variable causing complex risks --> Giddens 'manufactured risks' because they are stemming from human agency
Which kind of risks does the International Risk Governance Council distinguish between?
Simple: putting up a smoke detector
Complex: difficult to see relationship between potential agents and effects
Uncertain: lack of good data, e.g. terror or long term side effects of technology
Ambiguous: Different perspectives on a specific threat
Systemic: when risks cannot be limited to one country/territory
What is the difference between ambigious threats as Deere-Birkbeck and Stirling understands it?
Deere-Birkbeck: it is about different perspectives. E.g. managing a risk can be about either looking at root causes or making technical fixes
Stirling: difficult to predict and unknown outcome
Makes sense that there can be different perspectives if the outcomes are unknown (?)
How are risks distributed a.t. Deere-Birkbeck?
Uneven both between and internally in populations. Further differs how good groups are to act on risks
What is risk governance about a.t. Deere-Birkbeck?
Not only about collecting data and knowledge, but also taking peoples worries into account as well as the ethical implications
Why is it difficult to do global risk governance?
Problem to agree on e.g. burdensharing, and the responsibility for something will often be spread on several institutions/organisations (political rather than effective) + path-dependency.
Further, intergovernmental processes are criticised for not including the relevant stakeholders e.g. from development countries
What is necessary to improve global risk management a.t. Deere-Birkbeck?
Proposes research agenda:
How best to allocate responsibility and costs? How to build up capacity, monitoring, new approaches to intergovernmental governance etc.
What is the 'Bridging the divide' text about?
It discusses how trade and health are connected as well as how WTO and WHO are cooperating.
Questions whether WTO is a legitimate actor given that many meetings are closed and that the poorer countries do not have resources to monitore the legislation processes.
Furthermore WHO has problem with funding, which makes them vulnerable to donor preferences
What does Bridging the Divide suggest to do to better the cooperation between WTO and WHO?
WHO should have an office at WTO to ensure that they are heard, and they should try to seek for common interests, e.g. contagious diseases that could affect the economy
How does Deere-Birkbeck define global governance?
As the processes, traditions, institutional arrangements and legal regimes through which authority is exercised, and decisions taken and implemented at the global level.
How does different theories look at global risk governance?
Neoliberalists: Formal structures of regime policy coordination, surveillance and enforcement
Constructivists: Informal networks, process of communication, learning and socialisation amongst
Critics/structuralists: Power structure: Institutionalisation of hegemony