Flashcards in Economic Geography Deck (24):
economic development and way of development
usually refers to the adoption of new technologies, transition from agriculture-based to industry-based economy, and general improvement in living standards.
Name the stages of Rostow’s Modernisation model of economic development
1. TRADITIONAL SOCIETY :The society is traditional, and the dominant activity is subsistence farming
2. PRECONDITIONS OF TAKEOFF: New leadership moves the country toward greater flexibility, openness, and diversification.
3. TAKEOFF: the country experiences something similar to an Industrial Revolution, and sustained growth takes hold.
4. DRIVE TO MATURITY: Technologies diffuse, industrial specialization occurs, and international trade expands.
5.HIGH MASS CONSUMPTION: high incomes and widespread production of many goods and services.
Give an example of one country in each of the following World Systems Theory categories (three different countries in all): core, semi-periphery and periphery.
semi-periphery: Brazil, Mexico, India
periphery: Thailand, Most of Africa, Russia, Nepal
How does Wallerstein’s World-Systems Theory relate to earlier patterns of colonialism?
Core: processes incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth in the world economy.
• Periphery: processes incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; peripheral processes generate less wealth in the world economy.
• Semi-periphery are places where core and periphery processes are occurring simultaneously—places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery.
Relate to colonialism because colonial countries are more often core and exploit colonies for their resources
What is neocolonialism?
a structuralist theory which states that even tho poorer countries are sovereign major world powers continue to control the economies of the poorer countries
other measures of development
technology, social welfare (dependency ratio), HDI composite measures
NGO and roles
Non governmental org. tries to reduce suffering
Name four barriers to development
- social composition
- foreign debt
- political instability
What is the dependency ratio for a country and why is it important?
# of dependants that each 100 employed people must support, important for figuring out GNI per capita and in wealth of country, population pyramids, social composition
What is dependency theory?
to do with colonialism; certain political/economic relations have created arrangements which limit and control extent which a region can grow, believes colonized countries have little hope for economic prosperity has been challenged
Describe one example in a specific country of a government strategy to promote development
• Medical and health campaigns
• Literacy campaigns
• Retraining and higher education incentives
8 Millennium Development Goals (UN)
Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger.
Achieve Universal Primary Education.
Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women.
Reduce Child Mortality.
Improve Maternal Health.
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases.
Ensure Environmental Sustainability.
Develop a Global Partnership for Development.
In which sector(s) of the economy do(es) your family work?
Tertiary Quaternary > government public services
Me > Secondary> food processing
Define the tertiary sector of economic activity and provide an example of this kind of activity.
- service industries
- connecting manufacturing and industrial processes to consumers and service
- facilitates trade and commerce too
How does the distribution of activities amongst the three sectors of the economy allow us to predict Canada’s role (core or periphery) in the World Systems Model (recall Wallerstein) we already studied? How has this role changed through time and why?
Yes because Canada has a higher rate of tertiary activity related to core as usually higher paying
changed over time:
- aboriginal trading system
- supporting Britain colony
- post WW2
- 1980's strong service economy
Who was EITHER von Thünen OR Weber and why are his ideas still useful today (if they are) ?
Thunen: Primary activity location (agriculture) in 1880s Germany. Written in 1842 The greater the distance to market, the higher the transport costs that have to be added to the cost of producing a crop or commodity.
Alfred Weber’s Model, 1909
This is a least cost theory
Weber stated that the location of manufacturing (secondary activity) is determined by:
1. Minimiselabourand transportation costs
2. Maximize BENEFITS OF AGGLOMERATION— manufacturing plants benefit from close proximity because they share skilled- labour and technological and financial services.
Why have innovations in transportation and technology lead to “time-space” compression?
energy and fuels, maximum transport effectiveness at lowest costs
Name (and be able to label on a map) the five major industrial areas in the world today. Be able to state the dates they developed in order :
Define just-in-time manufacturing.
allows companies to keep just what they need for short-term production, and additional parts are shipped in quickly when needed. Made possible by improved transportation/ communication technology
Main stages of development of an economy (3)
1. Pre-industrial stage —primary activities
2. Industrial stage —manufacturing economy with an output greater than that of primary sector
3. Post-industrial stage —most of the labour force engaged in tertiary, quaternary, and quinary activities.
Where? and Why there? are the major manufacturing regions of the world?
cheap labour access to resources needed
1. Primary activities: agriculture, mining, and lumber, (involve extraction or production of raw materials)
2. Secondary activities: make something from raw materials
(include such activities as manufacturing cars, the textiles industry and food processing)
3. Tertiary activities: are those service industries connecting the manufacturing and industrial processes to consumers, as well as services that facilitate trade and commerce.
i. A tertiary sector includes trade, transportation, and warehousing.
ii. Aquaternarysectorincludesindividuals working with the exchange of information or money (banking and investments).
iii. A quinary sector includes individuals involved in research and development or higher education e.g. universities produce knowledge transfer and sell learning as a commodity.