Flashcards in Population models and pyramids Deck (21):
2 types of Population density measures
- Arithmetic density : Population of a country/ total land area
- Physiological population density : Population of a country/ arable land
What were the high and low values of arithmetic density and what was Canada?
Low= Greenland 0 people per km2 ; High= Macao 18,942 people per km2
Canada = low 3 people per km2
Why is the arithmetic population density misleading?
Accounts for all land even uninhabitable areas.
What were the high and low values of physiological population density and what was Canada?
Low= autralia 40/km2 ; high= Singapore 392384/km2
Canada= 67/km2 still pretty low
World population density distribution: 3 major areas
East Asia (25%) South Asia and Europe
Why is Egypt an extreme example of physiological population density?
Egypt 98% live on just 3% land
- the Nile (arable land)
Crude Birth Rate: number of live births a year per thousand people
Total Fertility Rate: is the average number of births per woman of childbearing years (15-49)
Crude Death Rate: number of deaths a year per thousand people
Child mortality rate
Those that die within the first 5 years of life (includes infant mortality)
Malnutrition, poor sanitation, little prenatal care
Demographic Transition Model based on:
based on Western Europe’s experience of change in population growth (and decline) as a result of industrialization
Demographic Transition Model 5 stages:
1. High birth rates and death rates.
2. Death rates fall (due to sanitation, better food supply, medical innovation), producing a net population gain.
3. Birth rates start to fall due to urbanisation, education of women, etc.
4. Birth and death rates convergence at a low overall level. A stable population may be reached
5. Countries may experience stage 5 where birth rates are lower than death rates; population is declining
calculation used to find the total population change of a country
total population change of a country = crude birth rate+immigration - crude death rate+emigration
typical poor country population pyramid
fat bottom; tapers quickly (roughly a triangle shape)
typical wealthy country population pyramid
events and bottom with a bulge in the middle
sudden dent in male side of pyramid means
sudden increase in both sides or pyramid means
baby boom or immigration
Thomas Malthus vs Esther Boserup
Malthus: adding acreage and crops incrementally by year, whereas population grew exponentially, compounding on the year before> carrying capacity of land is reached and country becomes overpopulated
Boserup: societies have the capacity to invent their way out of trouble due to their human capital
Name one example of where a government policy has attempted to increase fertility rates.
- Canadian government introduced a “baby bonus” following World War II.
- Quebec introduced an Allowance for Newborn Children and $5/day childcare
- National day of conception in Russia (2005)
What is the difference between hierarchical and contagious diffusion?
Contagious: person to person distance controlled spreading of an idea
Hierarchal: idea passes first among most connected people or places