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Flashcards in Ecosystems Deck (85):
1

Producers

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

2

Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

3

Cellular Respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

4

Fat

an organic substance that is solid at room temperature and is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms

5

Motabilism

the chemical reactions occurring within an organism that enable the organism to use energy and grow and repair cells

6

ATP

Adenosine Phosphate

7

Aerobic respiration

the chemical breakdown of food using oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in all body cells and releases energy.

8

Cytosol

the fluid found inside cells

9

Glycolysis

process by which glucose is converted into a simple form, during which energy is released

10

Krebs cycle

part of the aerobic respiration process in which carbon dioxide and ATP (energy) are produced

11

Electron transport chain reactions:

part of the aerobic respiration process

12

Mitochondria

small rod-shaped organelles that supply energy to other parts of the cell. They are usually too small to be seen with light microscopes. Singular = mitochondrion.

13

Anaerobic respiration

the chemical breakdown of food without oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in cells and releases less energy than aerobic respiration.

14

Lactic acid

an end product of anaerobic respiration in animals; also known as lactate

15

Ethanol

an end product of anaerobic respiration in plants; a form of alcohol

16

Organism

living thing

17

Species

group of living organisms capable of int

18

Species

A group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species

19

Population

a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time

20

Community

more than one population living in the same area at a particular time

21

Ecosystems

communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

22

Ecology/ecologists

the study of ecosystems

23

Producers (autotroph)

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

24

Decomposers

organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials

25

Photo synthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

26

Omnivores

animal that eats plants and other animals

27

Detritivores

animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter

28

Ecological Niche

the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

29

Competition

the struggle among organisms for food, territory and other factors

30

Parasitism

an interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements

31

Mutualism

relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit

32

Commensalism

relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected

33

Interspecific competition

competition between organisms of the same species

34

Intraspecific competition

competition between organisms of different species

35

Predator prey relationship

relationship between organisms in which one species (the predator) kills and eats another species (the prey)

36

Symbiotic relationships

very close relationship between two organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners.

37

Iodine

A liquid that stains starch a blueish black

38

What is ATP

Adenosine triphosphate is considered to be the energy currency of life. It is used to do almost everything that we do on a daily basis.

39

How many ATP molecules are made from glucose? Aerobic and anaerobic?

Ask sir,,,, check emails!!!

40

Define the difference between abiotic and biotic

Biotic= living or dead

Abiotic= Non-living

41

Give examples of biotic

Frogs, grass, lion, lily pads, worms, bob cat

42

Give examples of Abiotic

Water, Oxygen, rocks, (excluding coal and limestone), nitrogen, carbon dioxide, dirt, light, lava

43

Describe the ecosystem chain

Organism -> species/population -> communities -> Ecosystems

44

Another word for producer

Autotroph

Way to remember: auto=automatic food

45

Another word for consumer

Heterotroph

Way to remember= hetero = heterosexual= other [eats others] e.g. Plants

46

Herbivores

an animal that feeds on plants. E.g Like a vegan person

47

Carnivore

An organism (including plants) that eat mainly or entirely animal tissue and meat. E.g. Meat lovers pizza

48

What are First order consumers

First Order Consumers are animals that eat plants. They are the first step in the food chain. E.g. Cows, rabbits

(Peasants)

49

Second order consumer

Second-order Consumer - the organism that eats or derives nutrients from the first-order consumer. E.g. Wolves, hyenas


(Nobles and lords)

50

Tertiary consumers (third)

The organisms that prey on the second consumers e.g. Lions, Crocodile, whale. They are at the top of the food chain.

(King, emperor)

51

Explain the order of consumers

Producer / autotroph: a plant that feeds itself via photo synthesis. E.g. Sea algae

1st: herbivores (heterotroph) that feed of the producer. E.g. Clown fish

2nd: carnivores (heterotroph) that feed of the 1st consumer e.g. Shark

3rd: carnivores (heterotroph) that feed of the 2nd consumer e.g whale

Recap: algae> clown fish> shark> whale

52

Explain a symplified version of order of consumers

Grass> rabbit> snake> eagle

53

Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis is one species living inside another one.

Example: Protozoans that live inside termites and help them digest wood.

54

Ectosymbiosis:

Ectosymbiosis is one species living on the surface of the other species.

Example: Lice that feed on the skin, blood, or oil secretions of the host.

55

Chemosynthetic organisms

Potatoes ??? They don't need sunlight and things like carbon to oxidise into methane are their energy ASK SIR!

56

Bacteria

Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic micro-organisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes.

57

Funghi

A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes micro-organisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

58

Organism

an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.

59

Consumer

A heterotrophic organism that feeds on other organisms in a food chain. Lions, hyenas, giraffe (can be herbivores)

60

Decomposer

Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition. E.g. Bacteria, funghi, snails, some insects

61

Chemosynthetic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

62

Food chain

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

63

Food web

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

64

Trophies level

A level within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

65

How much chemical energy is passed on from eating an organism?

About 10 percent

66

Energy pyramid

a representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain

67

Pyramid of numbers

representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

68

Pyramid of biomass

representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

69

Immigration

The number of individuals moving into a new area

70

Emigration

the number of individuals leaving an area

71

Exponetial growth

rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

72

Sigmoid

The shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

73

Equilibrium

a state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

74

Zero population

the point at which birth and death rates balance each other out

75

Carrying capacity

the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain

76

Tundra

Extremely cold climate, Low biotic diversity, Simple vegetation structure, Limitation of drainage, Short season of growth and reproduction, Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material, Large population oscillations

77

Animals in a tundra

Albatross, seal, royal penguin,

78

Plants in tundra

Shrubland, tussock grassland

79

Types of hybrid organisms

Wholphin, Liger, mule, cama

80

Decomposers

Funghi like mushrooms. Feed of dead. Some bacteria

81

Detrivore

Things that eat animal waste e.g. Dung beetles and poo

82

Epicormic bud

The seed in which a plant can regrow after a fire

83

Lignotuber

a rounded woody growth at or below ground level on some shrubs and trees that grow in areas subject to fire or drought, containing a mass of buds and food reserves. It holds the epicormic bud

84

What are plants made up of

Eukaryotic cells

85

What is overcropping

When a species is being formed by humans quicker than it can reproduce