Edema, Hydrocephalus, and Increased ICP Flashcards Preview

Neuro Block 1-RG > Edema, Hydrocephalus, and Increased ICP > Flashcards

Flashcards in Edema, Hydrocephalus, and Increased ICP Deck (21):
1

What are the two physiologically distinct types of cerebral edema?

vasogenic
cytotoxic

2

Describe vasogenic cerebral edema

caused by increased leakiness of capillaries

3

Pathogenesis of cytotoxic cerebral edema

swelling of neuronal cells

4

What are the normal causes of cytotoxic cerebral edema?

hypoxia
cellular insult/metabolic damage

5

Two basic Tx options for vasogenic edema

steroids
mannitol

6

Mechanism of mannitol Tx

mannitol is simple sugar, IV admin, does not cross BBB so causes fluid to move from CSF back into systemic circulation and therefore decreases ICP

7

Mechanism of steroids

transcriptional level control of WBC, reduces # and therefore deceases inflammatory response

8

How do you treat cytotoxic cerebral edema?

no effective medical treatment

9

Hydrocephalus type caused by block of arachnoid granules

communicating hydrocephalus
(CSF still able to move around entire ventricular system)

10

Hydrocephalus type caused by block in ventricular system

noncommunicating hydrocephalus
(CSF unable to move through entire ventricular system--leads to enlargement of 1+ ventricles)

11

This phenomenon is referred to as a hydrocephalus type and follows brain atrophy--CSF fills empty damaged space

hydrocephalus ex vacuo

12

A choroid plexus papilloma causes this type of hydrocephalus

hydrocephalus due to increased CSF production

13

Normal pressure hydrocephalus is most common in what population

elderly

14

What are the three signs of normal pressure hydrocephalus

abnormal, wide gait
urinary incotinence
dementia
do not "care as much"

15

Two medications for treating ICP

acetazolamide
furosemide

16

Mechanism of action for acetazolamide

inhibits carbonic anhydrase

17

Mechanism of action for furosemide

inhibits NKCC transporter on abluminal surface

18

What is a brain herniation

movement of one area of the brain into another compartment

19

Subfalcine herniation

one hemisphere moves across falx cerebri

20

Transtentorial herniation

temporal lobe pressed against tentorium cerebelli

21

Tonsillar herniation

cerebellum pushed against foramen magnum