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Flashcards in Educational Access Deck (19):
1

OED triangle

A model of the impact of one’s social origins (or background) on their social destination (or socioeconomic outcomes). The O stands for social origins, i.e. family background, and includes measures of one’s parents’ education, income and occupation. E stands for education, or an individual’s level and type of schooling. D stands for social destination, or an individual’s income and occupation. Through this model, social origins are expected to influence social destination directly (through social networks and other family advantages) and indirectly through an individual’s education.

2

social mobility

the movement between social strata in a society, resulting in change in social status

3

cohort

a group or class or people, usually applied to birth cohorts or class cohorts

4

income distribution

How a nation’s total GDP is distributed across its population. We often discuss income distributions in terms of percentiles. People with incomes in the 90th percentile have incomes higher than 90% of people in the income distribution. People with incomes in the 10th percentile have incomes that are higher than 10% of people in the income distribution.

5

90/50 income gap in education

Average difference in test scores between students in the 90th income percentile and students in the 50th income percentile, a measure of the gap in educational performance between high income and middle income students. Since the 1970’s, the 90/50 gap has tripled, while the 50/10 gap hasn’t changed much.

6

50/10 income gap in education

Average difference in test scores between students in the 50th income percentile and students in the 10th income percentile, a measure of the gap in educational performance between middle income and low income students. Since the 1970’s, the 90/50 gap has tripled, while the 50/10 gap hasn’t changed much.

7

Persistent inequality hypothesis

The claim that in spite of increased educational attainment over the 20th century, differences in attainment between students of different social class origins had remained the same

8

Educational attainment

The highest level of education that an individual has completed

9

Tracking

The act of sorting students into particular academic or non-academic paths in schooling

10

Comprehensive schools

Schools that do not sort students into academic and non-academic tracks

11

Knowledge economy

An economy in which information, knowledge resources, and expertise are as critical as other economic resources

12

College graduation rate

The rate at which a group of college students finish college with a degree

13

College admission rate

The rate at which a group of high school graduates are accepted into colleges

14

Cohort squeeze

Bound and Turner (2007) used this term to describe the relationship between the college graduation rate and the number of 18-20 year olds in the United States. As the number of 18-20 year olds increases, the college graduation rate decreases. This is because the number of degrees awarded doesn’t change over time, indicating that the United States college system is operating at capacity. There are a limited number of college slots that cannot currently accommodate an increase in college enrollment.

15

Endowment rate

The sum of all the gifts and resources a university has, including those coming from alumni and the state. The more resources colleges have, the more they can invest in the quality of education, financial aid and student support.

16

Mindset intervention

A program intended to change the way students think about their intelligence and academic performance. It draws on neuroscience and psychological research to teach students that their intelligence can be developed (the growth mindset) and counter the entrenched idea among many students that their intelligence is fixed (the fixed mindset).

17

Growth mindset

The belief that one’s abilities can be developed, and that increased effort will result in learning skills that may have initially been very challenging

18

Fixed mindset

The belief in a fixed amount of intelligence at birth, that one’s abilities are limited, that some people and some groups are just smarter than others, and that this cannot be changed

19

Stereotypes

A widely held but oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person that may not accurately reflect reality