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Flashcards in The Experience of Poverty Deck (36):

official poverty measure (OPM)

an assessment of economic disadvantage based on household income and the cost of basic necessities, as determined by an absolute standard of living. It does not take into account non-cash government benefits, non discretionary spending, or variation in the cost of living across regions.


supplemental poverty measure (SPM)

an assessment of economic disadvantage that takes into account household income, non-cash government benefits (like food stamps and the EITC), non discretionary expenses (healthcare, childcare, work related expenses), and regional differences in the cost of living.


War on Poverty

A set of government social programs (including Heart Start, Food Stamps, Pell Grants, Medicare, Medicaid) established under the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson to relieve and prevent poverty by expanding government's role in education and healthcare


Head Start

A federal program that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.



The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, a federal nutrition program formerly known as food stamps that provides benefits to low income families to subsidize the purchase of food at grocery stores, convenience stores and some farmers' markets and co-ops.


Pell Grants

Federal grants supporting an undergraduate education based on financial need



A means-tested health insurance program funded and administrated by US federal and state government for people of all ages whose income and resources are insufficient to pay for health care, with eligibility criteria varying across states



A national health insurance program administrated by the US federal government for Americans 65 and older who have worked and paid into the system (and also younger people with certain kinds of disabilities and illnesses)


Market income

the pre-tax sum of money earned or lost through the market (so does not include government assistance)


disposable after-tax income

the combined sum of market income and government assistance available for consumption after taxes



the process of increasing international integration arising from the exchange of worldviews, products, and ideas, catalyzed by technology facilitating international communication and interaction



the act of contracting out a business process to another party


minimum wage

the lowest price employers can legally pay workers for their labor


right-to-work laws

a law that prohibits union security agreements, or an agreement between labor unions and employers that governs that extent to which a union can require employee membership, payment of union dues, or fees as a condition of employment. Generally, this makes it more difficult for unions to operate.



Aid to Families with Dependent Children was a program administered and funded by Federal and State governments to provide financial assistance to low income families with dependent children, in effect from 1935-1996, when it was replaced by TANF



Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is the federal financial assistance program that replaced AFDC in 1996 and provides up to 60 months of cash assistance to low income families with dependent children. According to federal rules, parents are required to begin some kind of employment within 24 months of receiving assistance, but program rules vary widely by state.



The Earned Income Tax Credit is a refundable federal tax credit for low to moderate income working individuals or couples, especially those with children. The benefit amount depends on a household's income and number of children.


extreme poverty

the level of poverty defined by $2 of earnings per person per day


high poverty neighborhood

neighborhood where at least 30% of households live in poverty


broken windows theory

a theory in criminology that argues that increased signs of neighborhood disorder, such as vandalism and other small crimes, act as a cue to criminals indicating lawlessness and apathy, thereby producing higher levels of serious crime



visual signs of neighborhood lawlessness and indifference, such as vandalism, litter, public drinking and drug use, other small crimes



a sub-set of a network in which actors are more closely tied to each other than others in the larger network


collective efficacy

the sense that residents trust each other and believe that their neighbors will take action if there is a problem


communities of disadvantage

neighborhoods where multiple social problems are clustered (such as poverty, unemployment, crime, incarceration, single parenthood and racial segregation)



a process of urban renewal in which an increasing share of wealthier residents and/or businesses move into a neighborhood and raise property values


white flight

the departure of racial whites from neighborhoods (or schools) increasingly or predominantly populated by racial minorities)


social class

a group of people in a hierarchy of classes sharing the same social, economic and educational status


cultural logic

a way of understanding a process or practice that is socially and culturally defined


concerted cultivation

the cultural logic as child rearing prevalent among the American middle class, as conceptualized by Annette Lareau. According to his logic, children's skills must be developed and honed through various organized activities. Children spend much of their free time in these activities in which they often negotiate and interact with adults while focusing on improving their individual performance.


accomplishment of natural growth

The cultural logic of child rearing prevalent among the American working class and poor, as conceptualized by Annette Lareau. According to this logic, parents and guardians must provide children with love, food, safety, and other basic needs, and children will thrive. Children have more free time, autonomy, and deeper relationships with extended family members than children in typical middle class families.


emerging sense of entitlement

a socialized way of interacting with institutions common among the American middle class that is active, confident, aggressive and self-promoting as conceptualized by Annette Lareau


emerging sense of constraint

a socialized way on interacting with institutions common among the American working class and poor that is generally deferential and outwardly accepting with some distrust and occasional resistance, conceptualized by Annette Lareau


affordable housing

housing at a cost that allows families with a median income to sustainable afford basic necessities


housing assistance

a set of policies that increases access to affordable housing for low income households, including public housing and Section 8 housing vouchers


public housing

a form of housing owned by a government authority and rented with the goal of providing affordable housing to low-income families



the forcible removal of a tenant from a rental property by the landlord