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Flashcards in EKG Concepts Deck (13)
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1

Morphology:
- P wave height/ length?
- PR segment depression?
- PRI length? >.2? Causes? (4)
- QRS .0.9-.12? (3)
- STE Causes? (5)
- STD: Upsloping? Horizontal? Downsloping?
- Wellins Warning?
- TP Segment serves as?

-

2

Axis/ Territories:
- 1, 2, 3, AVL, AVR, AVF?
- RAD? Block? LAD? Block?
- Inferior?
- High Lateral?
- Anteroseptal?
- Apex?
- Lateral?
- Posterior?

- 0, 60, 120, -30, -150, 90
- >120; LPFB; >-30 LAFB
- 2,3,AVF
- 1,AVL
- V1/V2
- V3/V4
- V5/V6
- STD in V1/V2, upright T and big R

3

MI:
- Non path Q waves?
- Old Posterior?
- Diffuse Q waves?
- Q in V1/V2/V3?

- Isolated 3, V1
- R in V1/V2, Iso ST and upright T
- Consider HOCM
- Cannot be a posterior MI

4

Blocks:
- Causes? (3)
- LAD? + IMI? RAD?
- Incomplete RBBB anatomy?
- RBBB morphology? Expect 2ndary STT change?
- LBBB: Q's 1,AVL?
- Gusto criteria?
- Chronic MI criteria?

- Ischemia, infiltration, idiopathic
- LAFB, poo poo; LPFB
- Secundum ASD
- Fat S in 1, V6; V1-V4
- Old anteroseptal
- Concordant 1mm STE in QRS; STD 1mm V1-V3; STE > 5mm with concordant QRS
- 1,AVL; Cabrera V2-V4, Chapman anywhere

5

Hypertrophy:
- RAE? (2)
- LAE? (2)
- RVH? (5)
- LVH? (5)

- V1 1 box above; 2 > 3mm
- V1 1 box under; 2 > 120 ms
- RAE/RAD; AVR > 5mm; R V1 > 8mm; R/S V1 > 1 or V6 20 in limb; R/S > 25 in V1-V6; ST strain; wide QRS; LAE; LAD

6

Electrolytes:
1.) Calcium: Hypo: Causes? (2) Findings? (2)
Hyper: Findings? (2)
2.) Potassium: Hypo? (4)
Hyper?(4)
- Risk of arrhythmias?

1.) Renal insuff.,pancreatitis; prolonged ST/QTC
- Short ST/ Wide T
2.) STD, Shallow T, Incr. QTc; U wave (camel hump)
- Peaked T, flat P, wide QRS, Incr. PRI
- With Hypos

7

Misc:
- PE Findings? (3)
- Dagger T's?
- Lowers QTc?
- Epsilon J wave?
- Taku Tsabu due to?
- Poor R wave progression? (8)
- Low Voltage? (6)
- Tall R in V1? (7)
- Swtiched limb leads?

- Sinus tachy, TWI in precordium, S1, Q3, T3
- Apical hypertrophy
- BB/Digoxin
- Hypothermia
- Catecholamines
- Anterior MI, Myocarditits, LVH, LBBB, COPD, Left pneumothorax, infiltration, tumor
- Obesity, HF, COPD, Amyloid, Pericardial effusion, hypothyroid
- Posterior MI, RBBB, RVH, WPW, HOCM, NL Variant, DMD
- Down in 1, Up in AVF

8

AV Dissoc.:
- What is it? Same as block? P waves vs QRS?
1.) Default: Due to? Narrow? Wide?
2.) Usurption: Due to? Increase HR? Decrease?
3.) AV Block: AV node?

- Atria and ventricles off set; no; less p's usually
1.) Lazy SA and escape beats come on; jxnal; ventricle
2.) NML sinus node but another site takes over; conducts nml; AV dissoc.
3.) Faulty AV node

9

AV Block:
- P's vs QRS?
1.) Due to?
2.) Type A: Due to? Morph? Look for? Shortest PR when? P to P? Often due to? 2:1?
Type B: Due to? Usually with? 2:1?
3.) 2 conditions? Escapes at? QRS ever early?

- More P's
1.) Delay of sinus impulse
2.) A: Depressed nodal conduction; longer PRI's; grouping; after dropped beat; constant; drugs; Long PRI with wide QRS
B: INFRAnodal conduction issue; BBB; Short PRI, wide QRS
3.) Complete block and opportunity to conduct;

10

Atrial/ Jxnal Rhythm:
1.) APC: Occur when? 3 options?
2.) SA exit block: Due to? Dropped P picks up when? Due to? Grouped?
3.) Sick Sinus Rhythm?
4.) Jxnal Rhythm: Paced by? (2) Retro P's found where? (3)

1.) Refractory conduction system; tranmits, refractory bloc; Aberrant RBBB
2.) Stimulus doesn't escape SA; when marched; SSS; yes
3.) Tachy-Brady
4.) Perinodal/His Bundle; upside down P, burried in QRS, upside down T wave

11

SVT: Rate/ rhythm?
- Regular?
- Irregular?
1.) MAT: Regular? due to? Def? Worse with? Assoc? (3)
2.) A-fib: Regular? Rate? Assoc w/? Tx?
3.) A Flutter: Loop? Rate? Adenosine break? Bix's Rule? Locked in rate?

- Tachy and narrow
- A Tachy, A Flutter, AVNRT, AVRT
- A fib, MAT
1.) Irregular; multifocal; >/= 3 P waves; catecholamines; CAD, CHF, COPD
2.) Irreg; higher than A Flutter; OSA; Amiodirone
3.) Regular loop does not include AV; 250-340; no; P b/n 2 complexes, think 2:1; yes

12

SVT 2:
4.) Ectopic A-Tachy: Due to? Can be additive to?
5.) AVNRT: Type of reentry? Involves AV? Accessory pathway? Morph? (2) Often started by?
6.) Type of reentry? uses conduction system? Rate vs AVNRT? WPW tx? Irreg. wide A-fib? Wellins Sign?

4.) Ectopic atrial foci; to P wave
5.) Micro; yes; no; pseudo S and STE in AVR; APC
6.) Macro; yes; faster; Procainimide; WPW; alternans in precordial leads

13

Ventricular Arrhythmias:
1.) PVC: Due to? Coupled to? SA/Atria? Bundiloid =? Rule of Bigeminy?
2.) VT: Rules? (7)

- Reentry; previous nml beat; don't see it; opposite ventricle; slow rate = longer repol and more PVC
- AV dissoc/fusion; very wide; regular; concordance; different morph from BBB; No RS; QS > 100 ms