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Flashcards in El Stomacho Deck (22)
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1

vagotomy

Vagus nerve is cholinergic. Cutting it decreases contraction of smooth muscle and decreases relaxation of the sphincters

2

PPI

proton pump inhibitors- They are absorbed in the intestine and travel via the blood to the stomach. When PPIs reach the parietal cell-canaliculi, the acidic environment converts these drugs into sulfonamide/sulfenic acid, which interact with sulfhydryl groups in H+-K+-ATPase and inactivate the proton pump irreversibly.

3

cimetidine

binds to histamine H2RA receptors on parietal cells and prevents the action of histamine.

Most side effects: complicates warfarin therapy by inhibiting liver enzyme that metabolizes it (cytochrome p450), therefore extrinsic clotting cascade does not have crucial cofactors bc warfarin metabolizes those-> prolonged PT time

4

Magnesium hydroxide

antacid

side effects: laxative, Hypermagnesemia and renal failure (kidney excretes magnesium)

5

Metoclopramide

useful in treating gastroparesis for two reasons. 1) It binds to dopamine D2 receptors on the neurons in the myenteric plexus and thereby prevents the inhibitory effect of dopaminergic neurons. 2) Metoclopramide activates serotonin 5HT4-receptors on vagal neurons and thereby increases parasympathetic action

side effects: tardive dyskinesia, oculogyric crisis, dystonia

6

Sucralfate

enhances mucosal protection. It is a complex salt of sucrose sulfate and aluminum hydroxide. At pH<4, sucralfate becomes a gel-like substance that binds preferably to defective mucosa

side effects: constipation

7

H. pylori infection

secretes the enzyme urease, an enzyme produced by the bacteria, converts urea into ammonia. The ammonia increases the pH around the bacteria further allowing it to survive in the stomach.

also secretes catalase and oxidase

dx: A commonly used clinical diagnostic test for urease activity involves drinking 13C-urea and measuring 13CO2 in the breath

tx: acid-suppressing agent (e.g. PPI or H2RA) and an antibiotic (commonly clarithromycin)

8

bismuth salts

binds to ulcers, allowing a physical protective barrier. It also suppresses H. pylori infection

9

anatomical divisions of the stomach

FCAP- Fundus/Cardia, Corpus, Antrum, Pylorus

10

gastroparesis

paralyzed stomach muscle -> food and secretions do not empty normally from the stomach, and there is nausea and vomiting

causes: disease of either the stomach muscle itself or the nerves controlling the muscle. most common cause of gastroparesis is diabetes mellitus

11

stimulate gastric motility

Acetylcholine, gastrin and motilin increase action potentials and contractions

Erythromycin, an antibiotic that binds to motilin receptors, increases action potentials and gastric contractions

12

inhibit gastric motility

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide decrease action potentials and contractions

13

gastric emptying

increased by: intragastric volume

decreased by: intraduodenal volume, fat and protein -> release GIP, VIP, PYY, hyper-osmolality (trigers osmoreceptors and chemoreceptors), acid -> secretin, acid -> H+ receptors -> myenteric signal to inhibit gastrin

14

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

symptoms: bleeding -> melena (black stool), perforate ulcers -> acid contents in peritoneal cavity -> peritonitis, diarrhea, low pH inactivates pancreatic lipase -> steatorrhea (fat in stool)

cause: gastrinoma (gastrin secreting tumor)

dx: high fasting serum gastrin

15

Pyloric stenosis

symptoms: liquids empty stomach faster, solids don't. Vomiting

causes: decrease in the amplitude of the antral contractions or an increase in sphincter resistance. usually due to scarring from chronic peptic ulceration.

16

Misoprostol

prostaglandin analog that is approved for the treatment of NSAID-mediated ulcers.

17

Histamine H2 receptor blockade

Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine are examples of H2RAs

18

Muscarinic M3 receptor blockade

muscarinic M3 receptors and triggers acid secretion

19

calcium carbonate

antacid

side efects: acid rebound (Ca stimulates parietal cells) and milk alkali syndrome (absorbed calcium elevates serum concentrations -> renal calcinosis)

20

Dumping syndrome

symptoms: Weakness, dizziness and excessive sweating 1-2 hours after meals in a gastrectomized patient

causes: triggers rapid absorption of glucose from the intestine, hyperglycemia, abrupt rise in insulin secretion, resulting in a secondary hypoglycemia 2 hours after meals

21

HCl secretion

stimulated by: vagus nerve (Ach and GRP), histamine, gastrin

Steps during secretion of hydrogen ions from parietal cells

CO2 (produced by metabolism) and water combine in parietal cells to form carbonic acid in the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) rapidly dissociates into H+ and HCO3-.
Proton pump: H+ ions are pumped into the stomach lumen through the proton pump in the apical membrane of the parietal cell. The proton pump (H+-K+-ATPase) requires ATP and pumps H+ in exchange for K+ (i.e. the exchange is electroneutral).
Anion exchanger: The HCO3- produced in the cell is transported into the blood through the HCO3-/Cl- anion exchanger on the basolateral surface of the parietal cell. The transfer of HCO3- into the blood accounts for the “post-prandial alkaline tide” (high pH of blood) after a meal. The exchange of HCO3- for Cl- is passive.
Steps during secretion of chloride ions from parietal cells.

Na+-K+-ATPase: Sodium-potassium ATPase on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cell pumps 3Na+ into the blood in return for 2K+ entering the parietal cell. There is a net loss of one positive charge. The interior of the parietal cell becomes negative.
Potassium ions diffuse back out into the blood through potassium channels on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cell and into the stomach lumen through potassium channels on the luminal membrane. This diffusion of K+ out of the cell further increases the intracellular negativity of the parietal cells.
Chloride ions: The high intracellular negativity forces Cl- into the stomach lumen through chloride channels located in the apical membrane of the parietal cell.
H+ and Cl- combine to form HCl (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach lumen.

22

AL(OH)3

antacid

side effects: lowers phosphate levels -> wealkness, malais, anorexia