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Upper Limb Physiotherapy (PHTY206) > Elbow Complex > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elbow Complex Deck (72):
0

What is the structure of the elbow?

Compound joint
Stable bony arrangement

1

What is the carrying angle and why is it formed?

5-20 degrees
Trochlea of the humerus extends further distally than does the capitulum

2

What is the flexible ROM at the elbow?

145 degrees

3

How many joints make up the elbow complex? What are they called?

3
Radio-humeral
Superior radio-ulnar
Humeral-ulnar joint

All surrounded by loose capsule

4

What makes up the humero-ulnar joint? What plane is it in?

Hinge joint between trochlear notch and trochlea of humerus

Not in ant-post plane and so carrying angle in extension/sup formed

5

What does the semi lunar joint do?

Prevents lateral movement in humero-ulnar joint

6

What prevents lateral movement at humero-ulnar joint?

Semi lunar notch ulna

7

Anatomy of the radiohumeral joint?

Limited ball and socket hinge joint

8

How is the HOR held in the radial notch?

Annular ligament

9

Structure of radio ulnar joint?

Covers 80% of radial head
Thicker posteriorly > ant

10

What does the radio ulnar joint allow?

Together allow supination and pronation

11

What are the four major ligaments of the elbow?

Ulnar collateral
Radial collateral
Annular
Quadrate

12

What makes up the ulnar collateral ligament?

Anterior oblique band
Posterior band
Intermediate band

13

Where is the anterior oblique band?

Anterior medial epicodyle to coronoid process

Ulnar nerve crosses this section

14

Where is the posterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament?

Posterior medial epicodyle to coracoid process

15

Where is the intermediate band of the ulnar collateral ligament?

Varies

16

What does the ulnar collateral ligament do?

Resists abduction force

17

What levels is the ulnar nerve, where is it in the brachial plexus?

C8-T1
Part of medial cord of the brachial plexus

18

What is the path if the ulnar nerve?

Descends on the posteromedial aspect of the humerus
Travels through cubital fossa at elbow
Enters the anterior (flexor) compartment of the forearm through the two heads of FCU and runs alongside the ulna

19

What do the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus form?

Median nerve

20

What cord/s of the brachial plexus form/s the median nerve?

lateral and medial

21

What is the course of the median nerve?

Enters from axilla at inferior margin of teres major
Passes vertically down and courses with brachial artery on medial side of arm between biceps and brachialis

22

What forms the radial nerve?

C5, C6, C7, C8, T1.
posterior cord of the brachial plexus

23

What does the radial nerve supply?

3 heads of triceps
12 muscles in posterior aspect of forearm

24

What is the course of the radial nerve?

Travels through quadrangular space in axilla around the spiral groove humerus a emerges laterally.
- Pierces latral intermuscular septum/branches and travels between brachialis and brachioradialis
-In distal humerus travels anterior to lateral epicondle.

- Pierces forearm divides into 2 branches

25

What does the radial nerve divide into?

superficial (brachioradialis)
Deep (pierces supinator

26

What is the largest unprotected nerve in the body?

Ulnar

27

What supplies the anterior elbow?

musculocutaneus, median and radial nerves

28

What supplies the posterior elbow?

ulnar nerve
branch of radial nerve to anconeus

29

What is the close and loose packed position of the radio-humeral joint?

C- 90 degree flexion + 5 degree supination
L- Extension and supination

30

What is the close and loose packed position for the ulno-humeral joint?

C- Extension
L- 70 degrees flexion

31

What is the close and loose packed position for the superior radio ulnar joint?

C - 5 degrees supination
L- 70 degrees flexion + 35 degrees supination

32

What limits elbow flexion 135-145 degrees?

Anterior muscle bulk
Radial head and coronoid opposition and tension in posterior capsule and triceps

33

What limits elbow extension?

Olecranon opposition and tautness in Ant Oblique potion of ulna collateral ligament and anterior capsule

- Biceps and brachial musculotendinous structures

34

What limits pronation 85 degree

annular ligament

35

What does the annular ligament limit?

Pronation at 85 degrees

36

What does Anterior muscle bulk
Radial head and coronoid opposition and tension in posterior capsule and triceps
limit?

Flexion 135-145 degrees

37

What are common causes of lateral elbow pan?

Lateral epicondylalgia
Referred pain
(cervical/ upper Tx/ neuromyofascial)

38

What are the less common causes of lateral elbow pain?

Syonovitis RHJ
RH bursitis
PIN entrapment (radial tunnel syndrome)

39

What are causes of lateral elbow pain that are not to be missed?

Osteochondritis Dissecans
- Capitulum
-Radius

40

What are common causes of medial elbow pain?

Flexor tendinopathy
UCL strain

41

What are less common causes of medial elbow pain?

UN compression
Avulsion # of me
Aphophysitis

42

What are cause of medial elbow pain that are not to be missed?

Referred pain

43

What are the common causes of posterior elbow pain?

Olecranon bursitis
Triceps tendinopathy
Posterior impingement

44

What are the causes of posterior elbow pain?

Common:
Olecranon bursitis
Triceps tendinopathy
Posterior impingement

Less common:
Gout

Not to be missed:
Olecranon #

45

What are the less common reasons for posterior elbow pain?

Gout

46

What are causes of posterior elbow pain that are not to be missed?

Olecranon #

47

What are the causes of lateral elbow pain?

Common:
Lateral epicondylalgia
Referred pain
(cervical/ upper Tx/ neuromyofascial)

Less Common:
Syonovitis RHJ
RH bursitis
PIN entrapment (radial tunnel syndrome)

Not to be missed:
Osteochondritis Dissecans
- Capitulum
-Radius

48

What are the acute conditions at the elbow?

Fracture/dislocation
Olecranon bursitis

49

What are the acute on chronic conditions are the elbow?

Instability - MCL rupture

50

What are the chronic conditions at the elbow?

Lateral epicondylalgia
Medial epicondylalia

51

Who is prone to elbow dislocation?

High among 10-30 year olds
Sporting injury (cycling, gymnastics, football, wrestling), falls, MVA

52

What is the most common cause for dislocation?

MVA

53

How common is elbow dislocation?

Account for 10-25% of all elbow injuries
Most common joint in <10 yr olds

54

What is prognosis for elbow dislocation?

Due to intrinsic stability, re-dislocation uncommon
Chronic instability may be a problem post dislocation

55

What are the most and least common elbow dislocations?

posterior- most common
90% of dislocations are either posterior or postero-lateral
postero-medial less common
anterior-rare

56

What is the MOI for elbow dislocation?

FOOSH
elbow hyperextension
Combination of valgus, supination and ER of forearm during axial loaing.

57

What is the terrible triad?

dislocation + radial # + coronoid
ALWAYS check
neurovascular observation

58

What injuries are commonly associated with elbow dislocations and why?

Due to the MOI.

- avulsion of either medial or lateral epicondyle
- coronoid and rdial head fractures
- osteochondral lesions - particularly capitulum
Injuries at other sites including shoulder, distal radius an ulnar styloid fracture

59

How would a patient present with an elbow dislocation?

Severe pain and supporting arm
Forearm shortened with olecranon and radial head protruding posteriorly
Soft tissue swelling deformity
Potential for damage to the brachial artery, median and ulnar nerves

60

What is nursemaid's elbow?

Radioulnar joint injury involving a dislocation, this on seen at the proximal joint is known as a radial head subluxation or nursemaid's elbow.

61

How does nursemaids elbow occur?

More often sustained when the forearm is pronated

Dislocation head of the radius from the annular ligament that I often caused by an abrupt yanking of the arm.

62

What are the symptoms of nursemaid's elbow?

pain that presents low in the forearm away from the injury site, slight swelling and th inability to supinate the forearm, or turn the hand palm-up.

63

How can fractures at the elbow be classified?

Stable - most elbow dislocations
- most radial head # (beware coronoid #)

Unstable
Olecranon #
All humeral condylar, transcondylar
supracondylar #

Complex #/dilocations (terrible triad)

64

What I he most common fracture site at the elbow?

Radial head

65

What is the MOI for a radial head fracture?

Similar to dislocation i.e FOOSH

66

What is a fracture to the radial head commonly linked to?

Damage to collateral ligaments

67

How does a medial epicondyle avulsion occur?

Prior epiphyseal closure rapid strong contraction of the forearm flexors is capable of avulsing in the medial epicondule young adults.

Tenderness in medial epicondyle should arouse suspicion in an adolescent.

68

What may happen if medial epicondyle avulsion is not detected?

increasing valgus deformity.

69

What are the causes of olecranon bursitis?

Fall on tip of elbow
Resting elbow on a hard surface

70

Signs and symptoms of olecranon bursitis.

large swelling/pain/slight limitation o flexion.

71

Treatment of olecranon bursitis.

Avoid provocative activity/rest/ice/NSAIDs/compression.

Note - can become infected.
Xray to rule out joint conditons.
Can have injection to relieve swelling or bursectomy.