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Flashcards in Electric Fields Deck (28)
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A moving charge....

Produces a magnetic field


Magnitude of force applied between two charged particles is given by...

The magnitude of the charge and the distance between the charged objects


An electric field is

The region of space around a charge


Electric field strength

Determined by how close together the field lines are
The closer the lines, the greater the force


Electrical Potential

The amount of energy from a supply required to move a charge of one coulomb to a point within the electric field


Potential Difference

The difference in potential between the two points


A stationary charge has
When it moves it has

An electric field around it
A magnetic field is created


Right hand grip rule

To determine the direction of the magnetic field lines when drawing diagrams
Thumb represents the direction of the current
Your fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field lines


Left hand rule

To determine the direction of the force on a current-carrying wire
Middle finger gives the direction of the current
First finger gives the field direction
Thumb gives the direction of force or motion on the current carrying wire


A particle Accelerator is

A device that uses electric and magnetic fields to accelerate charged particles to very high speeds


Linear Accelerators/Linacs (3 Points)

-A charged particle is attracted towards a plate in a 'drift' tube
-Particle passes through one of these tubes and is accelerated towards the next, passes through and is accelerated to the next and so on
-The field between each drift tube must change rapidly so that each (new) tube attracts the particle leaving the previous tube


Disadvantage of a linear accelerator

Particles are kept in the centre by magnets In order to increase the energy and velocity of these particles means the accelerator must be long and makes the cost of construction high
The final energy of the particles is limited by the length of the accelerator


Circular Accelerators/Cyclotron (4 Points)

-High frequency voltage supply accelerates the particles
-Consists of two D-Shaped sections ('dees') which have a small gap and a high potential difference between them
- Charged particle is accelerated across the gap then bent inside one of the Dee's until it is in the opposite direction
- Particles accelerated across the gap until the particle is at the correct energy - where it is released for the experiment


Benefits of cyclotrons

Circular nature - magnets keep particles in a circular orbit - means that it can be smaller than a linear accelerator meaning that it would be cheaper to make


Disadvantage of cyclotrons

As the particle becomes faster its path radius increases and it moves further out towards the edge of the dees
At very high speeds, relativistic effects interfere with the efficient operation of the cyclotron and it can be difficult to adapt the fields in line with the particle


Synchrotrons (3 Points)

- A specific type of circular accelerator
- Magnetic and electromagnetic fields have been adapted to produce a very energetic and narrow ring of charged particles at high energies
- Usually built in order to produce radiation for experiments and medical applications rather than to accelerate particles for investigation


Benefits of synchrotrons

- When particles are accelerated rapidly and have to travel in curved paths synchrotron radiation is emitted
- Energy loss can occur during these particle physics experiments
- Synchrotrons can be built so that radiation is produced at certain frequencies for scientific and medical purposes
- They can produce highly energetic photons across a range of frequencies


Many synchrotrons produce

High energy X Ray's for spectroscopy where atom structure can be investigated


A charged particle in an electric field

Experiences a force which can make the particle accelerate


One volt is

One joule per Coulomb


Fields exist...

Around charged particles and between parallel plates


Charged Particles in Linear Accelerators are accelerated by

A series of alternating electric fields


Linear accelerators and Cyclotrons are used in

Fixed-Target experiments


Synchrotrons are used in

Colliding beam experiments


Charged particles in a cyclotron are accelerated by

Alternating electric fields


Particles in a cyclotron travel....
As a result of....

In a spiral of increasing radius as a result of a constant magnetic field which is perpendicular to the spiral


The diameter of a cyclotron is limited by

The physical size of the magnet


In a synchrotron charged particles travel...
And are accelerated by...

In a circular path of fixed radius as a result of c shaped magnets of varying strength
Alternating magnetic fields