Flashcards in Electrical Stimulation Deck (65)
What are the physiological effects of electrical stimulation?
1 decrease pain
2 decrease muscle spasm
3 reduce edema
4 stimulate exercise by muscle contraction
5 stimulate healing
By what concept does electrical stimulation decrease overall pain?
Gate-Control theory/endorphin release
What is the gate control theory and how does it work?
Theory that explains how non-painful input closes the "gates" to painful input, therefore preventing pain sensation from traveling to the CNS.
What 3 things are required for electricity to work?
1 source of electrons
2 driving force
3 path (conductor)
What is the river analogy in terms of electricity?
Electrons = drops of water in a river
Current (Amp) = flow of the river
Voltage = waterfall
Resistance = water flow through hose
Is there more or less resistance with a short smooth large diameter hose/wire?
What does the term capacitance mean?
ability of a material to store a charge (to release later)
What is Ohm's Law?
V = IR
What is another name for a monophasic current?
Direct current (DC) or Galvanic
What type of current has current flow in one direction?
Monophasic/direct current (Galvanic)
What is another name for a biphasic current?
What type of current has an electron flow that changes directions regularly?
Biphasic current/alternating current
Which type of wave form has the same shape in both phases? Different shapes?
Symmetrical = same shapes
Asymmetrical = different shapes positive and negative
What are the shape variations possible with a biphasic current?
Sinusoidal, square, rectangular, triangular
What is the term for the time it takes the current to leave the isoelectric line to when it returns to that line?
In what type of current are the phase duration and pulse duration the same?
What type of current has two phase duration for each pulse?
Do tissues respond to phase duration or pulse duration?
The phase duration must be how long (in general) to cause an action potential?
Long enough to overcome capacitance
Do small or large diameter nerves have low capacitance and therefor reach threshold quickly?
What is the space called in between each pulse duration?
What is the term used to describe the intensity or magnitude of the current?
Which fibers are close to the skin and have a lower threshold, so they are stimulated first?
Which response is elicited first: sensory or motor?
What is the term for the amount of current supplied over a period of time?
Why can too high average current be an issue?
Can cause tissue damage
What measurement describes the relationship between the amplitude (strength) of the electrical current and the phase duration?
Strength duration curve
Does a short or long duration require a higher amplitude for the nerve response?
What kind of duration allows for a lower intensity for the same nerve response?