Electronic Structure Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Electronic Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Electronic Structure Deck (27):
1

Energy levels

Quantum shells which the electrons in an atom are arranged

2

Shells

Numbered from one- the lowest energy level, shells further from the nucleus have a higher energy level

3

Shell 1 can hold ..,

2

4

Shell 2 can hold

8

5

Shell 3 can hold

18

6

Shell 4 can hold

32

7

S subshell

Contains one orbital. Hold max of 2 electrons. Spherical shapes

8

P subshell

Contains 3 orbitals, therefore 6 electrons. Dumbbell shape. Right angles to eschtoehr

9

D subshell

Contains 5 orbitals so 10 electrons.

10

F subshell

Contains 7 sub shells so 14 electrons

11

Orbitals

Bit if space that an electron moves in , orbitals within same subshell have same amount of energy. Orbital can be empty, contain one or two. If two, must have oppistite spins

12

Aufbau principle

Electrons fill subshells in order of increasing energy

13

Hunds rule

Within subshell, orbitals first occupier singularly

14

Paulis exclusion principle

2 electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins

15

Chromium and copper

Exceptions, they donate one of their 4s electrons to the 3d subshell, as they are more stable

16

Ionisation enthalpy

Involves loss of an electron to form positive ion. Ions can be further ionised. Energy is needed for ionisation to happen, therefore endothermic reaction

17

First ionisation energy

Energy needed to remove one electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 moles of gaseous ions with single positive charge

18

Ionisation enthalpy depend on.,,

Nuclear charge
-more protons there are in nucelius, stronger attraction
Electron shell
-further away from nucleus, weaker forces of attraction are
Shielding
-weaker forces of attraction

19

Down a groups, the ionisation energy...

Decreases, becomes easier to remove outer electrons

20

Across a period, ionisation energy...

Increases as it becomes harder to remove outer electron

21

Why do ionisation energies rise

Closer to shell
Less shielding
Positive ions
Other subshell

22

Steps of mass spectrometry- vapourisation

Sample is turned into gas
Stage 1

23

Steps of mass spec
Ionisation

Gas particles bombarded with high energy electrons to ionise them. Knocked off particles leaving positive ions

Stage 2

24

Steps of mass spec
Acceleration

Positive ions are accelerated by electric field

Stage 3

25

Steps of mass spec
Deflection

Positive ions path is altered with magnetic field, lighter ions have less momentum and are deflected more than heavier ion

Stage 4

26

Steps of mass spec
Detection

Magnetic field strength slowly increases, chances m/z ratio of ions that can reach detector

Stage 5

27

Evidence for electronic structure

Atomic emission spectra