Flashcards in Elizabethan England Deck (63):
Where did Elizabeth live when she was young?
She lived in various residences. The most significant was Hatfield House.
What standard of education did Elizabeth receive?
She received an excellent standard of education. She learnt to speak many languages including Spanish, French and Italian.
What religion was Elizabeth?
Elizabeth was a protestant.
What was Elizabeth reported to have done when her father died?
She is reported to have wept uncontrollably.
What happened when Edward died?
Henry's will was ignored because of pressure by the Duke of Northumberland.
Who replaced Edward on the throne?
Lady Jane Grey replaced Edward as the ruling Monarch because she was Protestant whereas Mary was a Catholic.
How did Mary treat Protestants?
She treated them in a disgraceful manner because she burnt 282 Protestants heretics at the stake.
What sort of relationship did Elizabeth and Mary have?
They had a tense relationship because firstly, Mary was a catholic and Elizabeth was a protestant. She hated Elizabeth's youth and beauty. Elizabeth lied to Mary because she claimed that she was ill and couldn't go to Whitehall Palace during Wyatt's rebellion. Elizabeth was suspected of working with the rebels.
When did Elizabeth become Queen?
Elizabeth became Queen on 15th January 1559.
How long did Elizabeth reign for?
She reigned for more than 40 years.
What were some of the problems that Elizabeth at her accession?
She was a woman, she wanted to re-establish Protestantism as the main religion, she was unmarried and had no children and she needed to appoint her advisors.
What was the Royal Court?
The royal court was a mobile operation and was located wherever the Queen was.
What was it made up of?
It was made up of about 500 nobles, servants, advisors and officials.
What were Progresses?
Progresses were tours that Elizabeth would undergo whereby she would visit homes of the nobility.
How did people try to impress Elizabeth?
They tried to impress her in a number of different ways but one way that they tried to impress her was by putting on lavish banquets, performances and masquerades that would act as Propaganda to impress and glorify Elizabeth.
What was the system of Patronage?
The system of patronage was where Elizabeth gave particular men specific jobs in order to show favouritism and get them to vie for her attention.
What was the Privy Council?
The Privy Council was Elizabeth's council of advisors however the Queen did not have to take their advice.
Who was one of Elizabeth's most trusted privy councillors?
Why did the Queen like Cecil?
She liked Cecil because he appeared loyal but he also knew how to manage the Queen.
How did she control her privy councillors?
She controlled them by sometimes showing affection and rewarding them however she could also show displeasure at other times as well. She played a game of divide and rule whereby the men would compete for her affection.
What was the role of Parliament during Elizabeth's reign?
The role of Parliament was to discuss taxes to do with wars, armies and defeating rebellions.
How did Elizabeth view Parliament?
She viewed it as unnecessary and inconvenient. She decided when Parliament met and for how long. During Elizabeth's reign, Parliament only had 13 sessions, 140 weeks in session, 3 meets per year, didn't meet for 29 years and only 10% of MPs spoke.
How did MP's feel about this?
They were angered by this and they became more confident in arguing against the Queen.
What powers did Elizabeth exert over Parliament?
She limited the influence of Parliament and she also used the force of her own personality. She charmed but also bullied MP's and used speeches to do this.
What happened by the 1590's?
By the 1590's Elizabeth's government was in crisis because of war, plague, poverty and harvest failures. Also, the patronage system was breaking down and failing as many of her councillors died. Dudley died in 1588, Walsingham died in 1590 and Hatton died in 1591. Due to this, Elizabeth became angry and depressed and people were sensing that she had reigned for too long.
What happened in 1601?
The Essex rebellion.
What was the Essex Rebellion?
In Elizabeth's Privy Council, there were two main rivals who were Robert Cecil and the Earl of Essex. Essex had annoyed the Queen by marrying without her permission and insulted the Queen when losing his temper. He then was banished from Court but was given another opportunity to redeem himself but he made peace with Tyrone against the Queen's orders. He then went to far when he burst into the Queen's bedchamber. However, in 1601 he gathered around 300 supporters after losing his monopoly of sweet wines and proceeded to march to London but he underestimated the Queen and was executed on 25th February 1601.
What were some of the problems facing female rulers at the time?
There was existing prejudice against female rulers and a stigma existed around the topic of women being in a position of power.
How old was Elizabeth when she succeeded?
Why did everybody want Elizabeth to marry?
They wanted her to marry because then they may have an heir and the Tudor Dynasty may have died if she didn't marry.
What happened in 1566?
Elizabeth lost her temper with Parliament for raising the issue.
Who did Elizabeth receive proposals from?
King Phillip of Spain and Prince Eric of Sweden.
Who were her English suitors?
William Pickering, The Earl of Arundel and Robert Dudley.
Who was her last suitor?
The Duke of Alencon.
Why did this not work out?
It didn't work out because of the St Batholomew's Day massacre where thousands of Protestants were murdered meaning that the French were very unpopular in England.
Did Elizabeth ever get married?
What happened in 1562 to Elizabeth?
She contracted smallpox.
Who were the main claimants to the throne after Elizabeth's death?
The Stuarts and the Suffolk's.
Who turned out to be the obvious heir?
What happened when Elizabeth died?
The Tudor Dynasty came to an end.
Was Elizabeth a Protestant or a Catholic?
She was a Protestant.
What was one of Elizabeth's aims when it came to religion?
One of her aims was to heal the divide between Catholics and Protestants.
What was the Act of Supremacy?
The Act of Supremacy was passed in 1559 and it re-established the break from Rome and an independent Church of England. She chose Supreme Governor rather than Supreme Head as her title. She kept Bishops as a concession to the Catholics.
What was the middle way?
The middle way was a law that was passed which aimed to end the quarrels between Catholics and Protestants. The Mass was in English and so was the Bible however to appease the Catholics crosses were placed on the table and vestments had to be worn.
Who were recusants?
Recusants were people that did not attend the Anglican mass.
What happened in 1569?
The Pope excommunicated Elizabeth which meant that the Catholics no longer had to obey the Queen's orders.
What act was passed in 1571?
The Treason Act
What did this law state?
This act stated any denying of Elizabeth's supremacy could be punished by death. It also stated that anybody that left the country for more than six months had their land confiscated.
What happened in 1572?
The St Bartholomew Day's massacre.
What was this?
The massacre was where thousands of French protestants were killed in mob violence. It was believed that it was brought about by the Catholic government.
What did this do to feelings about Catholicism in England?
This worsened feelings towards Catholicism in England.
Which threat emerged in the 1580s?
Who were the Jesuits?
They were a religious group dedicated to serving the Pope.
What were their aims?
Their aims were to gain influence over rich and powerful families and to turn them against the Queen. They helped to smuggle priests into England once they were there.
What were priest holes?
Priest holes were concealed homes where priests would hide and where they could celebrate the illegal mass.
What happened in 1581?
New laws were passed against the Catholics including a £20 fine against recusancy and an attempt to convert people to Catholicism was deemed a treasonable act.
What law did Parliament pass in 1585?
They passed a law whereby becoming a priest was deemed treason and all priests were ordered to leave England within 40 days on pain of death.
In 1603, what had happened to the Catholics as a threat?
The threat had been wiped out by the Government.
Who else was unhappy with Elizabeth's response?
The Puritans were also unhappy.
What were they unhappy about?
They were unhappy about the Catholic parts of Elizabeth's middle way. They became a problem for Elizabeth from the 1570s onwards. Robert Dudley was a Puritan.
What happened in 1576?
In 1576, Elizabeth decided that Parliament was no longer allowed to discuss religious matters without her permission.
Who did Elizabeth quarrel with?
She quarrelled with Edmund Grindal who was the Archbishop of Canterbury.