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What is a research question?

Provides the frame for which every component of a research project refers back to - everything read experimented and discussed must link back to it


What is a hypothesis?

A prediction of what the answer to a research question may be


How do we test the validity of a hypothesis

Carefully chosen statistical tests


What is a null hypothesis?

A prediction that there is no dependant relationship between two variables


What is an alternative hypothesis?

A prediction that there is a specific and reproducible (dependant) relationship between variables


Why in clinical practice would you prefer a non directional hypothesis?

In case you miss an effect from what you're testing


What is important to remember about testing the validity of null hypotheses?

Can only reject or fail to reject chosen null hypothesis- answer is most likely correct but isn't 100% conclusive


What is a p-value?

The likelihood that the observed difference was observed by chance


What is the significance of a p-value?

Calculates the probability that the observed results are real - the probability of the results of the study reflecting what would be observed in the population.


What is the alpha (a)-value?

The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it's true.


At what a-value do most consider the p-value to show a significant difference?

p ≤ a = 0.05


When do we reject the null hypothesis?

p ≤ 0.05