What derives from the septum transversum?
central tendon of diaphragm
What derives from the pleuroperitoneal membrane?
body of diaphragm
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are most common on ____ side and prevent proper development of ____.
left / lungs
During week 3, ____ forms between the splanchnic and somatic lateral plate mesoderm.
____ allow communication between the developing thorax and abdomen.
During week 3, vasculogenic cells cluster around the cranial portion of trilaminar disc to form the ____.
Fused portion of the endocardial tube forms the ____.
primitive heart tube
Unfused ends of the endocardial tube form the ____.
aortic arch arteries
During cardiac looping, ventricles curve ____ and ____, while atria moves ____ behind the great vessels.
caudal & ventral / upward
____ is a ventral outpocketing of the foregut.
____ closes the respiratory diverticulum off from the esophagus below the level of the larynx.
Lung bud branches into primary branches- ____, secondary branches- ____, and tertiary branches- ____.
R & L lungs / lobes / segments
The 4 stages of lung development are ____, ____, ____, and ____.
pseudoglandular, canalicular, terminal sac, and alveolar
Functional alveoli first appear in the ____ stage of lung development.
____ bypasses pulmonary circulation in the fetus; between the R & L atria. Becomes the ____ after birth.
foramen ovale / fossa ovalis
____ bypasses pulmonary circulation in the fetus; between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Becomes the ____ after birth.
ductus arteriosus / ligamentum arteriosum
____ bypasses the hepatic portal system in the fetus; between the umbilical vein and IVC. Becomes the ____ after birth.
ductus venosus / ligamentum venosum
____ bypasses the hepatic portal system in the fetus; between the placenta and ductus venosus. Becomes the ____ after birth.
umbilical vein / round ligament
____ delivers depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta. Becomes the ____ after birth.
umbilical arteries / medial umbilical ligaments
During week 3/4, folding incorportates the endoderm-lined gut tube into the embryo and creates mesenteries within the ____ that lines it.
lateral plate mesoderm
The ____ and ____ support structures supplied by the celiac trunk.
dorsal mesogastrium / mesoduodenum
The ____ supports structures supplied by the superior mesenteric artery.
The ____ supports structures supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery.
The ____ gives rise to the greater omentum. Meanwhile the ventral portion also gives rise to the ____.
dorsal mesogastrium / lesser omentum
Foregut starts caudal to diaphragm and rotates to the ____ and ____ to produce the curvatures of the stomach.
right / cranially
Distal foregut gives rise to the proximal 1/3 of the ____.
____ is a ventral outpocketing of the duodenum into the ventral mesogastrium, and gives rise to the ____.
hepatic diverticulum / liver
____ and ____ also arise from the hepatic diverticulum.
gall bladder / bile ducts
Two ____ buds arise from the duodenum into the dorsal and ventral mesoduodenum.
During stomach rotation, ____ fuse and one ____ degrades.
pancreatic buds / pancreatic duct
Midgut gives rise to the distal 2/3 ____, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, asending colon, and 2/3 ____.
duodenum / transverse colon
Distal tip of midgut loop is still attached to the yolk sac by the ____.
Midgut loop ____ into the umbilical cord as it elongates and rotates.
Small intestine bulges to the ____ and retracts as ____ arches over the top.
right / large intestine
Meckel’s diverticulum is an incomplete degradation of the ____, which can gain pancreatic properties and breakdown the wall of the ileum allowing leakage.
____ is a condition not compatible with life, in which the gut tube never retracts, preventing the body wall from closing.
Hindgut gives rise to the distal 1/3 transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, and the ____.
Ectodermal thickening and invagination opens hindgut to form the ____.
____ demarcates the line between endoderm and ectoderm within the rectum.
Hirschsprung disease is due to a defect in ____, in which parasympathetic ganglia don’t form within the colon and it lacks coordinated ____.
neural crest cells / peristalsis
During week 3 pre-folding, the ____ develops as a diverticulum of the endoderm from the yolk sac.
The allantois serves to store ___ beyond the capacity of the nephric system, but is not extensively developed in humans.
After birth the allantois remains in the ____ umbilical ligament as the ____.
median / urecus
During week 3/4, folding leaves the ____ unincorporated in the embryo.
The intermediate mesoderm gives rise to the primary retroperitoneal structures: ____, ____, and ____.
kidneys, urogenital ductal structures, and gonads
____ and ____ ridges make up the urogenital ridge within the intermediate mesoderm.
nephrogenic / genital
3 sets of kidneys develop from the nephrogenic ridge: ____, ____, and ____.
pronephros / mesonephros / metanephros
The ____ kidneys are never functional, but their ducts play an important inductive role in the development of the next sets of kidneys.
The ____ kidneys become functional around week 5. They filter blood, make urine, and drain it through the ____ to the ____.
mesonephric / mesonephric ducts / cloaca
The ____ kidneys are the final set of kidneys formed. The are functional around week ____.
metanephric / 9-10
The metanephric kidneys develop as 2 components: ____ and ____.
ureteric bud / metanephric blastema
The ureteric bud gives rise to the ____ structures of the neprhic system.
The metanephric blastema gives rise to the ____ of the kidneys.
____ between the ureteric bud and metanephric blastema allows both to grow and differentiate.
Lack of pronephric ducts causes ____, a condition not compatible with life.
The genital ridge is the ____ part of the intermediate mesoderm.
Up until week 6, the embryo has bipotential ductal structures, the ____ and the ____.
Mesonephric duct / Mullerian duct
The genital ridge gives rise to two types of cells: ____ and ____.
cord cells / mesenchyme
In males, the cord cells differentiate into ____, which produce ____.
Sertoli cells / MIF (mullerian inhibiting factor)
In males, the mesenchyme differentiates into ____, which produce ____.
Leydig cells / testosterone
The high levels of testosterone in males allows repurposing of the mesonephric ducts to become the ____.
The production of MIF by the Sertoli cells in males, promotes degradation of the ____ through apoptosis.
In females, cord cells differentiate into ____.
In females, mesenchyme differentiates into ____.
stromal cells of the ovary
In females, the ____ degrade since there is no testosterone present.
The caudal mullerian ducts fuse to form the ____. While the unfused cranial portion forms the ____.
uterus / fallopian tubes
The uterus contacts the dorsal side of the ____, which grows towards the uterus and canalizes to form the vagina.
The distal 2/3 of the vagina is ___, while the proximal 1/3 iis ____.
endoderm / mesoderm
The cloaca divides into the ____ and ____ spaces.
ventral (urogenital) / dorsal (rectal)
As the bladder grows, the caudal ____ are incorporated into the wall to become the trigone.
The ____ is an outgrowth of the mesoderrm in the genital region, covered by ectoderm, and lined beneath by a layer of endoderm called the ____.
genital tubercle / urethral plate
The ____ folds develop lateral to the genital tubercle, while the ____ folds are even lateral to that.
urogenital / labioscrotal
In males, the genital tubercle elongates to form the ____, and the ____ grow down and fuse around it to incorporate the ____ inside as a canal
glans of the penis / urogenital folds / urethra
In males, the ____ grow down and fuse to form the scrotum.
In females, the genital tubercle becomes the ____.
glans of the clitoris
In females, the ____ become the labia minora, while the ____ become the labia majora.
urogenital folds / labioscrotal folds
In females, the urethral plate becomes the ____.