Embryology and congenital abnormalities Flashcards Preview

Renal and urology > Embryology and congenital abnormalities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology and congenital abnormalities Deck (24):
1

What is agenesis?

Absence of one or both kidneys

2

What is a horseshoe kidney?

Fusion at either pole, usually lower

3

What are the characteristics of infantile type polycystic kidneys?

Rare

Autosomal recessive

In perinatal group - causes terminal renal failure

Uniform bilateral renal enlargement

4

What other congenital abnormality is polycystic kidney disease associated with?

Congenital hepatic fibrosis

5

Which germ layer do the kidneys originate from?

Mesoderm

6

How many mesonephric tubules are produced initially?

40

7

At which time do the 40 mesonephric tubules regress to 20 pairs?

End of week 5

8

What do the 20 pairs of mesonephric tubules differeniate into?

Excretory units

9

When does the metanephros appear?

5 weeks

10

When does the metanephros begin to function?

Weeks 9-11

11

What does the metanephros become?

The permanent kidney

12

What does the metanephros form from?

Ureteric bud

Metanephric blastema

13

What happens at the metanephros at day 28?

Ureteric buds sprout from distal mesonephric ducts

14

What forms from the uteretic bud?

Ureter

Renal Pelvis

Major calyces

Minor calyces

1-3 million Collecting Ducts
 

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15

What does the metanephric blastema become?

Nephron

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16

Where do the kidneys develop?

Pelvis

17

At which stage of development are kidneys in their normal position?

Week 9

18

What happens during weeks 5 and 6 during kidney ascent?

The mature kidneys lie in the pelvis with their hila pointed anteriorly
 

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19

How do the kidneys ascend from the pelvis?

As the pelvis and abdomen grow the kidneys slowly move upward

By the 7th week the hilum points medially and kidneys are located in abdomen
 

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20

How do the kidneys come to be in a retroperitoneal position?

Initially kidneys will ascend as abdomen grows

As the embryo continues to develop in a caudal direction, the kidneys are left behind and eventually come to lie in a retroperitoneal position at the level of L1 by the 9th week development
 

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21

Why might accessory renal arteries occur?

As kidneys ascend in the abdomen, they take blood supply from branches of the aorta closest to them

These usually degenerate, but may remain in place 

22

How does a horseshoe kidney occur?

Inferior poles of metaneproi fuse before ascent

Kidney becomes trapped under IMA

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23

What develops from the hindgut endoderm?

Rectum

Primitive Urogenital Sinus
 

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24

What develops from the primitive urogenital sinus?

Bladder

Pelvic Urethra

Definitive Urogenital Sinus
 

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