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Renal and urology > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (50):
1

Where are bacteria found in the normal urinary tract?

Kidneys, ureter and bladder - sterile

Urine colonised at lower urethra

2

What is the definition of a urinary tract infection?

The presence of micro-organisms in the urinary tract that are causing clinical infection
 

3

What is the definition of a complicated UTI?

UTI complicated by systemic sepsis or urinary structural abnormality or stones

4

What is cystitis?

Inflammation of the bladder

5

What factors increase the risk of developing UTI?

Female 

Catheterised patient

Patients with abnormalities of the urinary tract

6

What are the two routes of infection for UTI?

Ascending infection (from urethra towards kidneys)

Bloodstream

7

Which bacteria is associated with UTI and development of stones?

Proteus sp. (coliform)

8

What are the causal organisms of UTI?

E. Coli

Klebsiella sp.

Enterobacter sp.

Enterococcus

Proteus sp. and other coliforms

Staphlycoccus

Pseudomonas aueruginosa

9

Why is proteus sp associated with formation of stones?

Produces urease which breaks down urea to form ammonia, which increases urinary pH - precipitation of salts and foul smelling urine

10

Which bacteria usually causes UTI in women of child bearing age?

Staphylococcus saphrophyticus: a type of coagulase negative staph.

11

What is the difficulty in prescribing oral antibiotics to treat UTI with pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Resistant to most oral antibiotic except ciprofloxacin which can cause C. difficile infection

12

What bacteria is associated with UTI in catheterized patients and those with UT instrumentation?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

13

What are the symptoms of UTI?

Dysuria

Frequency

Nocturia

Haematuria

Fever

Rigors

Loin pain

14

Which symptoms imply upper UTI?

Loin pain

Fever

Rigors

15

Why is it important to get a mid stream sample of urine from a patient with suspected UTI?

First passed urine will be contaminated with organisms from urethra

16

What is the advantage of using a red lidded container to transport urine specimen to the lab?

Boric acid topped  will keep urine sterile for up to 24 hours i.e. will not allow bacterial overgrowth

17

Which substance indicates the presence of leukocytes/white blood cells in the urine?

Leukocyte esterase

18

What does the presence of nitrites in the urine indicate?

Presence of bacteria in the urine

19

Which bacteria do not test positive for nitrites in urine?

Enterococcus spp.

20

Why might culture of urine be done?

To test for significance of bacterial growth in urine

 

21

What on urine culture would indicate significant bacterial growth?

>300 colonies present

>10^5 organism/ml present

22

Is a mixed growth i.e. two or more organisms with >10^5 organisms per ml significant?

Probably not

23

What is the significance of an ESBL-producing bacteria?

ESBL = extended spectrum beta-lactamase

Makes bacteria resistant to ALL cephalosporins and to almost all penicillins
 

24

Which antibiotics may be useful against ESBL-producing bacteria?

Nitrofurantoin (oral)

Pivmecillinam (oral)

Fosfomycin (oral)

Temocillin (IV)

Meropenem (IV)

Ertapenem (IV)
 

25

What is carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE)?

Gram negative (coliform) bacilli that are resistant to meropenem - this usually means that they are effectively resistant to ALL current antibiotics
 

26

What length of course is usually sufficient to treat an uncomplicated lower UTI in women?

3 days

27

What first line antibiotics are used for UTI?

Amoxicillin (IV, oral)
Trimethoprim (oral, but can be given IV as cotrimoxazole)
Nitrofurantoin (oral)
Gentamicin (IV)
 

28

What are the second line antibiotics for UTI?

Pivmecillinam (oral)

Temocillin (IV)

Cefalexin (oral)

Co-amoxiclav (IV, oral)

Ciprofloxacin (IV, oral)

29

What UTI organisms does amoxicillin treat?

Enterococcus faecalis

Some coliforms, but >50% E. coli now resistant, and many other coliforms also resistant
 

30

When should use of trimethoprim be avoided?

1st trimester of pregnancy

31

What is co-trimoxazole?

A combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim

32

What UTI organisms does trimethoprim have effect against?

Most coliforms

Staph aureus incl. MRSA

NOT Pseudomonas sp.

33

Why is nitrofurantoin only useful in uncomplicated lower UTI?

Only reaches effective concentrations in bladder urine

 

34

When should use of nitrofurantoin be avoided and why?

Late pregnancy, can cause neonatal haemolysis

Breast feeding

Children <3 months old

35

What organisms does nitrofurantoin have effect against?

Most coliforms

Enterococci

Staph aureus incl MRSA

NOT proteus sp and pseudomonas sp

36

What organisms does gentamicin have effect against?

Most coliforms

Pseudomonas sp

Staph aureus incl MRSA

NOT enterococci
 

37

 When is gentamicin use in UTI particularly useful?

Very effective drug in severe Gram negative (coliform-related) sepsis
 

38

How long should gentamicin be prescribed for?

3 days only

39

When is pevmicillam useful in treating UTI?

Useful for treating lower uncomplicated UTI

Very beta-lactamase stable – has activity against very antibiotic-resistant coliforms that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)

 

40

Is pevmicillam use recommended in pregnancy?

No

41

When is temocillin useful in treating UTI?

Very beta-lactamase stable – has activity against very antibiotic-resistant coliforms that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)

Useful for treating complicated UTI/urosepsis in patients whose renal function is too poor for gentamicin, but is NOT as effective as gentamicin clinically
 

42

What empirical antibiotic treatment is issued for lower UTI in women?

Trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin orally (3 days)
 

43

What empirical antibiotic is useful for treating uncatheterised male UTI?

Trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin orally (7 days)
 

44

What empirical antibiotic in a GP setting is useful for treating complicated UTI or pyelonephritis?

Co-amoxiclav or co-trimoxazole (14 days)
 

45

What empirical antibiotic treatment in a hospital setting is given to treat complicated UTI or pyelonephritis?

Amoxicillin and gentamicin IV for 3 days (cotrimoxazole and gentamicin if penicillin allergy), stepdown as guided by antibiotic sensitivities
 

46

When should asymptomatic bacteuria always be treated?

Pregnancy

47

What complications may arise from untreated asymptomatic bacteuria in pregnancy?

20-30% progress to pyelonephritis

May lead to intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) or premature labour
 

48

What may be the cause of abacterial cystitis?

May be an early phase of UTI

May be due to urethral trauma - “honeymoon cystitis”

May be due to urethritis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhoea
 

49

How might symptoms of abacterial cystitis be helped?

Alkalanising the urine

50

Why should antibiotics only be given to catheterised patients displaying symptoms of UTI?

Giving too many antibiotics will only colonise catheter with increasingly resistant organisms