Embryology of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

Nero Exam #2 > Embryology of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology of the Head and Neck Deck (35):
1

neurocranium

cartilaginous - cradles the base of the skull during 1st 10 weeks of development
membranous - flat bones start to form

2

viserocranium

cartilaginous - 1st to 6th brachial arch cartilage
membranous - maxillary and mandibular prominences of the 1st branchial arch

3

apert syndrome

premature fusion of coronal sutures
acrocephalic (tower skull) appearance

4

carnioschisis

failure of occipital and parietal bones to completely form or close
associates w/ arrested brain development and rudimentary forebrain (anacephaly)

5

microcephaly

small cranium due to early fusion of cranial sutures

6

macrocephaly

enlarges cranium secondary to hydrocephaly
early fusion of the superior cranial sutures may result in conical cranium

7

frontal prominence

forms forehead, dorsum and apex of nose
ectoderm forms the nasal placodes
nasal placodes will form nasal prominences from mesenchyme
L nasal prominence makes the ala
M nasal prominence makes the middle part of nose, upper lip, and philtrum
also makes up primary palate and nasal septum
nasal pits made from nasal placodes

8

maxillary prominence

nasolacrimal groove - nasolacrimal duct

9

oblique facial cleft

due to failure of the lateral nasal prominence and maxillary prominence to fuse
associated w/ cleft chin and partial fusion of the mandibular prominences
exposure of nasolacrimal duct

10

mandibular prominence

fused during the 4th week to form the lower jaw and lip

11

cleft chin

failure of fusion of the lower jaw and lip

12

primary palate

from intermaxillary segment (fusion of medial nasal swellings)
made of mesoderm covered by ectoderm

13

secondary palate

formed by palatine shelves

14

anterior cleft deformity

failure of the medial nasal and maxillary swellings to fuse

15

posterior cleft deformity

palatine shelves do not fuse

16

median cleft lip and bifid nose

failure of medial nasal prominences to fuse
rare
associated w/ autosomal recessive

17

macrostomia and microstomia

dysfunction of the maxillary and mandibular swellings

18

I brachial arch

mm- mm of mastication
n. - trigeminal (V)
skeletal structures - incus and malleus
a. - degenerates
brachial groove - tympanic membrane, ext. auditory meatus

19

II brachial arch

mm - mm of facial expression
n. - facial n (VII)
skeletal structures - stapes, hyoid bone
a. - degenerates
brachial groove - anomalus cyst or fistulas

20

III brachial arch

mm - stylopharyngeus m
n. - glossopharyngeal (IX)
skeletal structures - hyoid
a. - stem of internal carotids
brachial groove - cervical sinus

21

IV brachial arch

mm - pharyngeal and laryngeal mm
n. - vagus (X)
skeletal structures - laryngeal carilages
a. - L aortic arch R subclavian
brachial groove - cervical sinus

22

VI brachial arch

mm - intrinsic mm of the larynx
n. - RLN

23

treacher collins syndrome

impaired growth of the midface
deformities include small chin, enlarged nose, cleft palate, and possible cleft lip
conductive hearing loss due to underdevelopment of ossicles

24

first brachial pouch

eustachian tube
tympanic cavity

25

second brachial pouch

pharyngeal tonsil
palatine tonsil
lingual tonsil
tongue (root)

26

third brachial pouch

inferior parathyroid gland (dorsal)
thymus (ventral)
tongue

27

fourth brachial pouch

superior parathyroid gland (dorsal)
ultimobranchial body (ventral)
parafollicular cells (thyroid gland)

28

abnormal cysts produced by the lateral cervical sinus or first pharyngeal cleft

isolated cervical cyst
cervical cyst w/ external fistula
cervical cyst w/ internal fistula
cervical cyst w/ both internal and external fistula

29

aural cyst

anterior to the ear
anomalous derivative of the 1st pharyngeal cleft

30

lateral cervical cyst

anterior to the SCM

31

development of thyroid

thyroid diverticulum evaginated and descends forming the thyroglossal duct which will make the pyramidal lobe

32

thyroglossal ducts cysts and sinuses

develop from remnants of the early migration of thyroglossal duct

33

anterior 2/3 of tongue

L lateral lingual swellings (Arch I) overgrows the median tuberculum impar
trigeminal n (GSA)
facial (SVA)

34

posterior 1/3 of tongue

overgrowth of the copula (Arch II) by hypobranchial eminence (Arch III)
glossopharyngeal n (GVA and SVA)

35

intrinsic mm of tongue

made from head myotomes
hypoglossal n (GSE)