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MIMM413: Parasitology > Emerging infectious diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Emerging infectious diseases Deck (24)
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1

Why aren't there any diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in temperate regions? (2 reasons)

1) not all mosquito species can carry pathogens - the mosquitoes that live in temperate regions don't carry pathogens
2) colder weather inhibits transmission cycle

2

T or F: most tropical diseases are stage 5 diseases

F - most temperate diseases are stage 5

3

List 2 factors that mediated emergence of infectious diseases in the human population

1) hunter-gatherer to large, close knit agricultural communities --> easier for transmission to take place
2) domestication of Old World animals

4

List 2 factors that facilitate zoonotic infections (from animals --> humans)

1) frequent close encounters with animals
2) similar physiology - ex. pathogens that have established a reservoir in monkeys are more likely to spread to humans bc monkeys and humans have similar physiologies

5

What is a stage 2 pathogen. Give 2 examples

Ex. Rabies, avian influenza virus
A pathogen that can be transmitted from animals to humans, but cannot spread from human to human

6

What is a stage 3 pathogen

Pathogens that spread from animal to humans, but have limited spread between humans

7

T or F: we develop good immunity against temperate diseases but not against tropical diseases

T

8

T or F: many vaccines are available for temperate diseases but not for tropical

T

9

T or F: Most temperate diseases are stage 5

T

10

T or F: most tropical diseases are transmitted from human to human via aerosols, close contact, or fomites

F - most tropical diseases are transmitted by insect vectors

11

Most emerging infectious diseases emerge from ____

animals

12

What stage of pathogen emergence did emerging infectious diseases come from?

Stage 1 - pathogens whose entire life cycle and transmission cycle stayed within animals only

13

List 3 reasons why EIDs spread more rapidly now than they did before

1. globalization/travel
2. increased trade in animal products
3. larger cities

14

What population is the first to be impacted by EIDs? Why?

Poorer population in rural areas - closer proximity to animals, less sanitation

15

What is the strongest indicator for EIDs?

Poverty

16

List 4 RNA viruses that the Aedes aegypti mosquito can transmit

Zika virus
Chikungunya virus
Yellow fever virus
Dengue virus

17

Where is the Aedes mosquito endemic?

Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, Central America, Mexico, Southern US

18

T or F: most EIDs are zoonotic

T

19

What is AmBisome used to treat?

VL

20

List 2 ways of contracting ML

1) L. braziliensis
2) treatment of CL --> parasites enters the nasal area --> inflammation in nose

21

Which forms of Leishmania is present in the sandfly?

Amastigote, procyclics, metacyclics

22

Amastigotes convert to which form of promastigote first?

procyclic

23

Which promastigote form is infectious?

Metacyclic

24

Which promastigote form is deposited into the skin of humans?

metacyclics