Flashcards in Emerging infectious diseases Deck (24)
Why aren't there any diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in temperate regions? (2 reasons)
1) not all mosquito species can carry pathogens - the mosquitoes that live in temperate regions don't carry pathogens
2) colder weather inhibits transmission cycle
T or F: most tropical diseases are stage 5 diseases
F - most temperate diseases are stage 5
List 2 factors that mediated emergence of infectious diseases in the human population
1) hunter-gatherer to large, close knit agricultural communities --> easier for transmission to take place
2) domestication of Old World animals
List 2 factors that facilitate zoonotic infections (from animals --> humans)
1) frequent close encounters with animals
2) similar physiology - ex. pathogens that have established a reservoir in monkeys are more likely to spread to humans bc monkeys and humans have similar physiologies
What is a stage 2 pathogen. Give 2 examples
Ex. Rabies, avian influenza virus
A pathogen that can be transmitted from animals to humans, but cannot spread from human to human
What is a stage 3 pathogen
Pathogens that spread from animal to humans, but have limited spread between humans
T or F: we develop good immunity against temperate diseases but not against tropical diseases
T or F: many vaccines are available for temperate diseases but not for tropical
T or F: Most temperate diseases are stage 5
T or F: most tropical diseases are transmitted from human to human via aerosols, close contact, or fomites
F - most tropical diseases are transmitted by insect vectors
Most emerging infectious diseases emerge from ____
What stage of pathogen emergence did emerging infectious diseases come from?
Stage 1 - pathogens whose entire life cycle and transmission cycle stayed within animals only
List 3 reasons why EIDs spread more rapidly now than they did before
2. increased trade in animal products
3. larger cities
What population is the first to be impacted by EIDs? Why?
Poorer population in rural areas - closer proximity to animals, less sanitation
What is the strongest indicator for EIDs?
List 4 RNA viruses that the Aedes aegypti mosquito can transmit
Yellow fever virus
Where is the Aedes mosquito endemic?
Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, Central America, Mexico, Southern US
T or F: most EIDs are zoonotic
What is AmBisome used to treat?
List 2 ways of contracting ML
1) L. braziliensis
2) treatment of CL --> parasites enters the nasal area --> inflammation in nose
Which forms of Leishmania is present in the sandfly?
Amastigote, procyclics, metacyclics
Amastigotes convert to which form of promastigote first?
Which promastigote form is infectious?