Emerging Viruses I and II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Emerging Viruses I and II Deck (28):
1

Hantavirus
1. mortality rate
2. family
3. Virus name
4. Disease
5. Reservoir
6. Distribution

1. high, 50-67%
2. Bunyavrirdae
3. Sin Nombre
4. Pulmonary syndrome- pneumonia
5. deer mice
6. N. America

2

Hantavirus
1. genome
2. what is seen on X-ray?
3. Transmission
4. Treatment
5. Detection

1. negative strand, segmented RNA
2. diffuse infiltrate
3. inhalation of virus particles present in mouse feces and urine; NOT human-human
4. aggressive respiratory support
5. specific IgM in pt serum

3

Arboviruses
1. Which viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks?
2. Which viruses are transmitted by animals or animal bites?

1. Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae
2. Arenaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae

4

4 Major Cycles by which arboviruses are transmitted

1. insect, bird, insect --> man (dead end host) or horse (dead end host)
2. Insect, monkey, insect, man, insect, man (urban cycle)
3. inset, goat, insect, goat, man (via goat milk); man is dead end host
4. insect, bird, insect, rodent, man (dead end host); also shows transovarial transmission in mosquitos

5

Arbovirus induce 3 infections

1. Encephalitis (fever, headache, stiff neck, altered consciousness)
2. Rash-fever (fevers, headaches, myalgias, arthralgias, malaise; resolve w/o sequelae
3. Hemorrhagic fevers (undifferentiated/rash fever + profuse bleeding into the skin and GI tract secondary to DIC, hypotension, shock, and leukopenia

6

Arbovirus Pathogenesis

1. Infects vascular endothelium
2. virus also infects macrophages in liver in spleen
3. virus can infect liver and brain --> serious disease

7

Detection of Arbovirus infection
1. How hard is it?
2. Why?
3. What methods can you do?

1. very difficult
2. don't grow well in cell culture
3. specific diagnosis by RT-PCR or by serology (high IgM or increasing IgG)

8

Eastern Equine
1. Geographical Distrubtion
2. Age Group Affected
3. Mortality
4. Sequelae
5. Symptoms

1. East, Gulf Coast, South
2. Children
3. 50-75
4. 80% of survivors- neuro symptoms
5. headache, altered consciousness, seizures (fulminant)

9

St Louis
1. Geographical Distrubtion
2. Age Group Affected
3. Mortality
4. Sequelae
5. Symptoms

1. Cental, West, South
2. Adults > 50 y/o
3. 2-20
4. 20% of survivors
5. headache, nausea, vomiting, disorientation, stupor, irritability

10

LaCrosse
1. Geographical Distrubtion
2. Age Group Affected
3. Mortality
4. Sequelae
5. Symptoms

1. Central, East
2. Children
3. <1
4. Low
5. seizures, paralysis, focal weakness

11

Yellow Fever Virus
1. Family virus
2. genome; envelope?
3. vector
4. reservoir
5. transmission cycle

1. Flaviviridae
2. + ssRNA, envelope
3. mosquitoes
4. monkeys in jungle, humans for urban cycle
5. jungle cycle

12

Yellow Fever
1. Geographic Distribution
2. Therapy
3. Vaccine

1. Endemic in equitorial areas (south america/Africa)
2. no antiviral therapy
3. Live-attenuated vaccine is effective; travelers should be vaccinated

13

Dengue Virus
1. family
2. genome; envelope?
3. vector
4. reservoir
5. cycle
6. serotypes?

1. Flaviviridae
2. + ssRNA, envelope
3. mosquitoes
4. monkey
5. jungle cycle
6. several, infection with one serotype seems to predispose individuals to more severe disease

14

Dengue Fever
1. Geographic areas
2. What causes the severe infection in secondary disease?
3. Disease (2)

1. central/south americas; subsaharan africa, india and south pacific; now seen in US
2. immunoresponse causes increased capillary leakage leading to more vascular permeability
3. "breakbone fever": headache, fever, pains in joints, muscles, eyeballs, maculopapular eruptions persisting 3-4 days
4. Dengue hemorrhagic fever- severe hemorrhage or shock; most frequently seen in children

15

Dengue Fever
1. Lab Diagnosis
2. Vaccine

1, depends on day of illness, viremia or NS1 (early); IgM or IgG later (secondary infection or late primary infection)
2. development of live-attenuated, tetravalent vaccine is ongoing

16

West Nile Virus
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. who gets most significant disease?

1. Flaviviridae
2. +ssRNA; envelope
3. mosquitoes
4. marsh birds; humans- urban cycle
5. people over 50 y/o

17

West Nile Virus
1. How is it detected in US?
2.What diseases does it cause? (2)
3. Vaccine

1. Sentinel Crows, RT-PCR analysis of mosquitoes, monitor cases of encephalitis
2. Meningoencephalitis, fever
3. In development

18

St Louis Encephalitis Virus
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope?
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. Treatment
6. Vaccine

1. Flaviviridae
2. +ssRNA, envelope
3. mosquitoes
4. marsh birds; man can be reservoir for urban cycle
5. no specific therapy
6. no specific vaccine

19

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5.what is man?
6. What is horse?
7. Vaccine?

1. Togaviridae
2. +ssRNA, env
3. mosquitoes
4. marsh birds;
5. dead end host w/ 50-70% mortality (short viremia)
6. dead end host?
7. none for man, available for horses

20

California Encephalitis Virus
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. What disease can it cause
6. what is man?

1. bunyaviridae
2. - segment RNA, envelope
3. mosquitoes
4. small mammals
5. CNS disease due to secondary viremia
6. dead end host

21

California Encephalitis Virus
1. what is another virus in the family?
2. who tends to get it?
3. how is it detected?
4. Therapy
5. Prevention
6. what kind of transmission is present?

1. LaCrosse Virus
2. children
3. serology
4. none
5. no vaccines; use mosquito control
6. transovarial transmission

22

Colorado Tick Fever
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. Symptoms
6. What does it look similar to? How is it different from that?

1. Reoviridae
2. segmented, double stranded RNA; no envelope
3. tick bite
4. squirrels
5. fever, headache, myalgia, rash, not severe
6. Lyme disease; different geographical distribution

23

Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever/ Spring-Summer Hemorrhagic fever
1. what kind of transmission?
2. reservoir
3. vector
4. prevention

1. cycle 3- transmitted through goat milk
2. small mammals or goats,
3. ticks
4. Vaccine, used in Austria; needs to be used in E. Europe and Russia

24

Characteristics of Filoviruses
1. What do they cause?
2. Reservoir
3. Therapy/Vaccines

1. severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality
2. bats
3. not available, in development

25

Ebola Virus
1. Family
2. genome/ envelope
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. Transmission

1. Filoviruses
2. negative strand RNA virus
3. monkey
4. bat
5.Blood-blood transfer: usually bush hunters dressing a monkey that they killed will be exposed/infected

26

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
1. Family
2. What contributed to rapid spead?
3. Vector
4. reservoir
5. Transmission

1. Coronavirus; related to but distant from other coronaviruses
2. international travel
3. Masked Palm Civets
4. chinese horseshoe bat
5. Respiratory spread, large droplets, close contact; may spread via fecal-oral

27

Nipah
1. what is seen in cell culture?
2. virus family? morphology?
3. reservoir
4. vector
5. Transmission

1. multinucleated giant cells
2. paramyxovirus w/ helical nucleocapside
3. bats
4. pigs
5. not person-person (including family contacts and health care workers); result of close contact with sick pig/horses

28

Nipah
1. Symptoms in pigs
2. Pathology in pigs
3. How was virus controlled?
4. Overall lesson

1. rapid/labored breathing; explosive "mile long" nonproductive cough; neurologic changes (lethargy and aggressive behavior)
2. pulmonary infiltrate and linear staining of the bronchial epithelium
3. culling the pigs
4. viruses can emerge into the human population through intermediate hosts