Measles, mumps, rubella Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Measles, mumps, rubella Deck (15):
1

Mumps Virus
1. acute or chronic?
2. Pathogenesis
3. What organs can be affected?
4. Transmission

1. acute
2. Inoculation of respiratory tract --> local replication --> Viremia --> systemic infection
3. Parotid gland, Testes, Ovaries, peripheral nerves, eye, inner ear, central nervous system, pancreas (assoc w/ onset of juvenile diabetes)
4. Respiratory Droplets

2

Where does the virus infect the parotid gland and what happens?

ductal epithelial cells
local inflammation causes marked swelling (may be uni/bilateral)

3

1. When are you infectious with mumps?
2. What is a notable consequence of infection? How common?

1. Can have virus in mouth/urine before symptoms begin
2. small subset of pts get meningoencephalitis and virus present in CSF

4

Mumps Pathogenesis (3)
4. What is essential for control of infection?

1. Infects epithelial cells of respiratory tract
2. spreads systemically by viremia
3. systemic infection, especially of parotid gland, testes, and CNS
4. Cell-mediated immunity, responsible for some symptoms; Ab not sufficient due to its ability to spread cell to cell

5

Mumps
1. Clinical Diagnosis
2. Lab Diagnosis

1. acute onset of unilateral or bilateral swelling of parotid or salivary gland lasting >2 days w/o other apparent cause
2. isolation of virus; significant increase in IgG Ab level between acute and convalescent samples; positive serologic test for mumps IgM antibody

6

Mumps Vaccine
1. Composition
2. Duration of Immunity
3. Dose

1. Live-attenuated virus
2. Lifelong
3. 1; should be administered with MMR

7

Measles
1. Symptoms (4)
2. Target Organs
3. 3 C's and a K
4. Major complication
5. Transmission

1. Mild Respiratory infection; Spread to cervical lymph nodes; Viremia, Fever and Rash (maculopapular)
2. Skin, CNS (rarely)
3. Coryza, cough, conjunctivits, Kopli's spots
4. encephalitis
5. respiratory droplets (sneezing, coughing); is extremely infectious

8

Measles
1. Kopli's spots
2. When does cough occur?

1. transient spots on skin or mucous membranes that look like large grains of salt
2. cough precedes the rash

9

Measle vaccine
1. What is a common source of US outbreaks?
2. How is it commonly administered?
3. Type of vaccine?

1. adopted children brought into the US from orphanages
2. with the MMR,
3. live attenuated vaccine

10

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
1. What is it?
2. Mortality rate?
3. When does it occur?
4. What increases risk of SSPE?

1. scarring and demyelination of many areas of the brain, causing mental deterioration; occurs mostly in children following natural measles infection
2. almost 100%
3. mostly in children, follows natural measles infection and a long incubation period (months to years)
4. infection in young child

11

Mumps and Measles
1. family of viruses?
2. genome
3. why are they vaccinated?

1. Paramyxoviridae
2. negative strand RNA
3. viremia causes an intense natural immune response

12

Rubella (German Measles)
1. Symptoms
2. genome/ envelope/ family
3. When is pt infectious?
4. Lab Dx
5. Why is rubella a problem?

1. URTI, maculopapular rash; mild disease
2. + strand RNA/ has envelope/ togavirus
3. before and after rash appears
4. Isolation from clinical specimen; rise in IgG by any standard serologic assay; positive serologic test for rubella IgM
5. congenital Rubella syndrome

13

Rubella
1. Transmission
2. number of serotypes

1. aerosol (cough); highly contagious
2. 1

14

Congenital Rubella Syndrome
1. Who does it infect?
2. When?
3. Manifestations (2)

1. if it infects pregnant women, can infect fetus --> CRS
2. usually in first trimester
3. Severe- Spontaneous Abortions and Stillbirths
Mild, Chronic- Congenital Rubella Syndrome

15

Congenital Rubella Syndrome
1. Symptoms
2. What role does vaccine play?

1. Deafness, Cataracts, heart defects, microcephaly, mental retardation, bone alterations, liver and spleen damage
2. high coverage rates with MMR = low incidence of CRS