Encoding and Retrieval Flashcards Preview

X PSYPRO4112 KOGNITIV PSYKOLOGI > Encoding and Retrieval > Flashcards

Flashcards in Encoding and Retrieval Deck (27):
1

So what's the difference between "coding" and "encoding"?

Some authors use these terms interchangeably. The book uses the term coding to refer to the form in which information is represented (visual, semantic, auditive..), and encoding to refer to the process used to get information into LTM.

2

Rehearsal is a technique that can help you encode memories. We often distinguish between two types of rehearsal. Which?

1. Maintenance rehearsal
2. Elaborative rehearsal

3

What is maintenance rehearsal?

This is rehearsal that maintains information in STM/WM, but is not an effective way of transferring information into long-term memory (e.g. repeating a phone number between looking it up and dialling it).

4

What is elaborative rehearsal?

Elaborative rehearsal occurs when you think about the meaning of an item or make connections between the item and something you know. It is more effective at transferring information into LTM than maintenance rehearsal.

5

An important theory of encoding is ...

Levels of processing theory.

6

What is levels-of processing theory?

In 1972 Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart proposed the idea of levels of processing. According to levels-of-processing theory, memory depends on how information is encoded, with "deeper" processing resulting in better encoding and retrieval than "shallow" processing. In other words, memory depends on how information is programmed into the mind.

7

According to the levels of processing theory, what is shallow processing?

Shallow processing involves little attention to meaning. Shallow processing occurs when attention is focused on physical features, such as whether a word is printed in lowercase or capital letters, or the number of vowels in a word. Shallow processing also occurs during maintenance rehearsal.

8

According to the levels of processing theory, what is deep processing?

Deep processing involves close attention, focusing on an item's meaning and relating it to something else. This way of processing occurs during elaborative rehearsal and, according to levels-of-processing theory, results in better memory than shallow processing.

9

What is the greatest problem with the depths of processing theory?

That it is based on common-sense, as in what feels deep and what feels shallow. It is also a fallacy to conclude that deep processing causes better memory and that good recall is caused by deep processing (that's circular reasoning).

10

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. List 6 different types of experiments on this subject.

1. Placing words to be remembered in complex sentences.
2. Forming visual images based on words.
3. Forming links between words and personal characteristics.
4. Generating information.
5. Organising information.
6. Testing.

11

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on placing words to be remembered in complex sentences?

Craig and Tulving (1975) found that memory for a word is much better when the word is presented in a complex sentence. Their explanation for this result is that the complex sentence creates more connections between the word to be remembered and other things, and these other things act as cues that help us retrieve the word when we are trying to remember.

12

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on forming visual images based on words?

Gordon Bower and David Winzenz (1970) used a procedure called paired-associate learning, in which a list of word pairs is presented. Later, the first word of each pair is presented and the participant's task is to remember the word it was paired with. One group was told to silently repeat the pairs and another group was told to form a mental picture in which the two items were interacting. The performance was greater in the imagery group.

13

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on forming links between words and personal characteristics?

T. B. Rogers and coworkers (1977) used the same procedure that Craik and Tulbing had used in their depth-of-processing experiment. That is they were asked yes-no questions about the word presented before the word was presented. In this study they were much more likely to remember the word following the question "Does this word describe you?"

14

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on generating information?

Norman Slameka and Peter Graf (1978) demonstrated an effect called the generation effect - the effect that generating the material yourself as opposed to passively receiving it enhances learning. They had participants study a list of word pairs. One group were given the pairs, the other had to partly make the pairs up themselves. Participants who had generated the second word in each pair were able to reproduce 28 percent more word pairs than participants that had just read the word pairs.

15

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on organising information?

Several studies have found a significant benefit to organising the information to be recalled.

16

A number of different procedures have been used to show that encoding can affect retrieval. The basic idea in all of these experiments is to vary encoding and measure how retrieval is affected. What research has been done on testing?

Testing following learning results in better memory than rereading material after learning.

17

Has there been research on the effect of retrieval cues?

Yes. Timo Mantilla (1986) presented participants with a list of 600 nouns. During learning, one group of participants were told to write down three words they associated with each noun. Both groups were later given a recall test that featured the retrieval cues they'd created (or that someone else had created). 90% of the 600 words were remembered if they had made the cues themselves, against only 55% in the other group. A third group that had never seen the original 600 nouns could only identify 17% of the words when given cues.

18

How can retrieval be affected by the environment?

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. Such as returning to the place of encoding.

19

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. These different ways to achieve matching are ... (3 types)

1. Encoding specificity (CONTEXT)
2. State-dependent learning (MOOD)
3. Transfer-appropriate processing (TASK)

20

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is state-dependent learning. What is it?

Matching the internal mood present during encoding and retrieval. MOOD

21

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is transfer-approprate processing. What is it?

Matching the task involved in encoding and retrieval. TASK

22

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is encoding specificity. What is it?

Matching the context in which encoding and retrieval occur. CONTEXT

23

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is encoding specificity. What evidence is there for this claim?

D. R. Godden and Alan Baddeley (1975) had one group of participants put on diving equipment and studied a list of words underwater, and the other group studied the words on land. The groups were later divided so 2/4 of the participants were tested underwater and 2/4 were tested on land. The results indicated that the best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location.

24

D. R. Godden and Alan Baddeley (1975) had one group of participants put on diving equipment and studied a list of words underwater, and the other group studied the words on land. The groups were later divided so 2/4 of the participants were tested underwater and 2/4 were tested on land. The results indicated that the best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location. A similar study also delved into this question. What study, and what is the question here?

The question is whether the context at encoding matters for the retrieval. Harry Grant and coworkers (1998) did the same study, basically, but had people read an article they'd later be quizzed on. They read either with headphones (silent) or without, and were quizzed with or without. Also in this study, matching the context during encoding and retrieval was beneficial to the retrieval.

25

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is state-dependent learning. What evidence is there for this claim?

Eric Eich and Janet Metcalfe (1989) asked participants to think positive thoughts while listening to "merry" music or depressing thoughts listening to "melancholic" music. They rated their mood while listening to the music and the encoding part of the experiment began when their rating reached "very pleasant" or "very unpleasant". They later studied a list of words. 2 days later and were put in the mood (the book doesn't mention if the groups were split). Results indicated that matching mood increased performance.

26

Studies have shown that retrieval can be increased by matching the condition at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. One way to do this is transfer-approprate processing. What evidence is there for this claim?

Donald Morris and coworkers (1977) had participants in a meaning condition or a rhyming condition hear a sentence with one word replaced by the word "blank". They were later given a word to replace with the blank, and a question if it either matched so that it gave it meaning (cond 1) or rhyme (cond 2 ). The rhyme group did better, and the researchers theorised that this was because the encoding and retrieval were both based on rhyme.

27

Taking a break between shorter study periods is good for learning. Myth or truth?

It's an effect called the spacing effect. Research has shown that memory i better when studying is broken into a number of short sessions, with breaks in between.