Flashcards in Endo & Urinary - ANDERSON Deck (38):
What enzyme converts T4 -> T3
What tumors are of the Adrenal Medulla?
so you should see an increase in what?
Neuroblastoma - in children
.... see increase in VMA!
What cells make EPI and NE?
chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
Dz of which there is an Adenoma of Aldosterone secreting part of Adrenals is called?
- increase Na in plasma (decrease K)
- zona glomerulosa
remember, Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> L-DOPA ---> Doapmine ---> NE ---> EPI
there is more EPI than NE
What does Aldosterone do in the DISTAL TUBULE? stimulated by?
- it also pumps K and H out
Stimulated by: angio ll, hyperkalemia, ACTH
Where does Renin come from and what doe it do?
Juxtaglomerular Cells of KD
Angiotensinogen -> Angio l
ACE from where and does what?
angio l -> angio ll
What is Zollinger Ellison Syndrome?
tumor of pancreas that secretes gastrin
- think ulcers
remember, Myasthenia Gravis is assoc w?
Cortical vs Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Juxtamedullary Nephrons - have a loop of henle
Afferent Arteriole's SM is stimulated by?
to do what?
EPI - decreases GFR
Efferent Arteriole's SM is stimulated by?
to do what?
Angiotensin ll - increase GFR
Macula Densa is located where and senses what to do what?
located at the end of the tubules
- senses Na and Cl
- if low, then tells juxtaglomerular cells to release RENIN and convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin l in order to increase GFR
Osmoregulation regulated by what part of the brain?
- think ADH to post pituitary
Na and K are reabsorbed mostly where?
in Prox. Tubule
- glucose, bicarb, AA, etc are mostly reabsorbed along w Na (cotransport)
Carbonic Anhydrase functions where to do what?
transport bicarb by making H+ + C02
- H+ and Na+ are counter-transported
- in prox tubule of nephron
Where can K+ be reabsorbed or secreted in the tubules of the nephron?
Where is water impermeable tubules of the KD?
Na K Cl cotransporter is where in the nephron?
Angio ll is converted into Aldosterone where?
what does Aldosterone do?
in Adrenal Cortex
- tells DISTAL TUBULE to reabsorb Na and excrete K
ALT and AST, located in the LR, do what?
- removes amino group and leaves behind alpha-keto acid
ALT and AST depend on what vitamin?
B6, pyridoxal phosphate
When AA are being metabolized in the LR, this is called OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION
- these become alpha keto acids!! then the NH4 can leave to become UREA in the urea cycle
alanine -> Pyruvate
glutamate -> alpha-ketoglutarate
aspartate -> OAA
C02 + NH4 go into the ______ in the UREA CYCLE
- this is where enzyme, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase lives
---> carbamoyl phosphate
carbamoyl phosphate --> L-Citrulline via
L Citrulline is located where in the cell?
- this is where more transamination takes place
L-Arginine --> UREA via...
UREA CYCLE happens in what organ?
The KD can also get rid of N via
GLUTAMINE - oxidative deamination
- like an N-shuttle
Berger's Dz aka
- injurs the glom w too much IgA
prodrome of resp illness in child followed by sore jts, purpura bc leaky blood vessels
Rapid GN bc autoAb to basement membrane of cells in glom and LU
- hemoptysis and hematuria
MC cause of Nephrotic Syndrome
- think foamy urine - lots of protein, lipids
- also assoc w SLE, DM, amyloidosis
Pyelonephritis - think this part of the KD
infx of tubules or interstitium
Urolithiasis - 75% of stones are
Calcium - so opaque
painless hematuria .. think
CA of urinary system