Endo & Urinary - ANDERSON Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endo & Urinary - ANDERSON Deck (38):
1

What enzyme converts T4 -> T3

5' Deiodinase

2

What tumors are of the Adrenal Medulla?
so you should see an increase in what?

Neuroblastoma - in children
Pheochromocytoma
.... see increase in VMA!

3

What cells make EPI and NE?

chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla

4

Dz of which there is an Adenoma of Aldosterone secreting part of Adrenals is called?

Conn's Syndrome
- increase Na in plasma (decrease K)
- zona glomerulosa

5

remember, Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> L-DOPA ---> Doapmine ---> NE ---> EPI

there is more EPI than NE

6

What does Aldosterone do in the DISTAL TUBULE? stimulated by?

reabsorb Na
- it also pumps K and H out
Stimulated by: angio ll, hyperkalemia, ACTH

7

Where does Renin come from and what doe it do?

Juxtaglomerular Cells of KD
Angiotensinogen -> Angio l

8

ACE from where and does what?

LU
angio l -> angio ll

9

What is Zollinger Ellison Syndrome?

tumor of pancreas that secretes gastrin
- think ulcers

10

remember, Myasthenia Gravis is assoc w?

thymic hyperplasia

11

Cortical vs Juxtamedullary Nephrons

Juxtamedullary Nephrons - have a loop of henle

12

Afferent Arteriole's SM is stimulated by?
to do what?

EPI - decreases GFR

13

Efferent Arteriole's SM is stimulated by?
to do what?

Angiotensin ll - increase GFR

14

Macula Densa is located where and senses what to do what?

located at the end of the tubules
- senses Na and Cl
- if low, then tells juxtaglomerular cells to release RENIN and convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin l in order to increase GFR

15

Osmoregulation regulated by what part of the brain?

Hypothalamus
- think ADH to post pituitary

16

Na and K are reabsorbed mostly where?

in Prox. Tubule
- glucose, bicarb, AA, etc are mostly reabsorbed along w Na (cotransport)

17

Carbonic Anhydrase functions where to do what?

transport bicarb by making H+ + C02
- H+ and Na+ are counter-transported
- in prox tubule of nephron

18

Where can K+ be reabsorbed or secreted in the tubules of the nephron?

Distal Tubule

19

Where is water impermeable tubules of the KD?

Ascending Loop

20

Na K Cl cotransporter is where in the nephron?

Ascending Loop

21

Angio ll is converted into Aldosterone where?
what does Aldosterone do?

in Adrenal Cortex
- tells DISTAL TUBULE to reabsorb Na and excrete K

22

ALT and AST, located in the LR, do what?

Transaminase Enzyme
- removes amino group and leaves behind alpha-keto acid

23

ALT and AST depend on what vitamin?

B6, pyridoxal phosphate

24

When AA are being metabolized in the LR, this is called OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION
Alanine --->
Glutamate --->
Aspartate --->

- these become alpha keto acids!! then the NH4 can leave to become UREA in the urea cycle

alanine -> Pyruvate
glutamate -> alpha-ketoglutarate
aspartate -> OAA

25

C02 + NH4 go into the ______ in the UREA CYCLE

mitochondria
- this is where enzyme, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase lives
---> carbamoyl phosphate

26

UREA CYCLE:
carbamoyl phosphate --> L-Citrulline via

Ornithine

27

L Citrulline is located where in the cell?

CYTOPLASM
- this is where more transamination takes place

28

UREA CYCLE:
L-Arginine --> UREA via...

Arginase

29

UREA CYCLE happens in what organ?

LIVER

30

The KD can also get rid of N via

GLUTAMINE - oxidative deamination
- like an N-shuttle

31

Berger's Dz aka

IgA Nephropathy
- injurs the glom w too much IgA

32

prodrome of resp illness in child followed by sore jts, purpura bc leaky blood vessels

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

33

Rapid GN bc autoAb to basement membrane of cells in glom and LU

Goodpasture's Syndrome
- hemoptysis and hematuria

34

MC cause of Nephrotic Syndrome

membranous GN
- think foamy urine - lots of protein, lipids
- also assoc w SLE, DM, amyloidosis

35

Pyelonephritis - think this part of the KD

RENAL PELVIS
infx of tubules or interstitium

36

Urolithiasis - 75% of stones are

Calcium - so opaque

37

painless hematuria .. think

CA of urinary system

38

mass in abd of child... must RO

Wilm's Tumor aka Nephroblastoma