Endo drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endo drugs Deck (20):
1

Insulin (rapid acting)

Aspart, Lispro, Glulisine

MOA: Binds insulin receptor
Use: T1DM, T2DM, GDM

SE: Hypoglycemia, hypersensitivity

2

Insulin (short acting)

Regular

Use: T1DM, T2DM, GDM, DKA, hyperkalemia, stress hyperglycemia
*Give IV insulin in acute DKA*

3

Insulin (intermediate)

Insulin (long acting)

NPH - intermediate
Long acting - Deltemir, Glargine

Use: T1DM, T2DM, GDM

4

Oral Hypoglycemics

Sulfonylureas, Biguanides (metformin), Glitazones, SGLT2 inhibitors (Canaglifozin)

5

Sulfonylureas

Chlorpropamide, Tolbutamide - first generation
Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glyburide - second generation

MOA: Close K channel in B cell membrane -> cell depolarizes -> Ca influx -> insulin release

Use: T2DM. NOT T1DM

SE: hypoglycemia - 2nd gen; 1st gen: disulfirum like effects

6

Glitazones

Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone

MOA: Increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue; Bind PPAR-y nuclear transcription regulator

Use: T2DM
SE: Weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity, HF, increased risk fractures

7

SGLT2 inhibitors

Canaglifozin
MOA: Block glucose reabsorption in PCT
USE: T2DM
SE: Glucosuria, UTI, vaginal yeast infections

8

DPP 4 inhibitors

-"gliptons"
MOA: increase insulin, decrease glucagon release
Use: T2DM
SE: urinary or respiratory infections

9

GLP1 analogs

Exanitide, Liraglutide
MOA: increase insulin, decrease glucagon release
Use: T2DM
SE: N/V, Pancreatitis

10

Amylin analog (Pramlinitide)

MOA: decrease gastric emptying, decrease glucagon release
Use: T1DM, T2DM
SE: Hypoglycemia, nausea, diarrhea

11

PTU, methimazole

Moa: Blocks thyroid peroxidase, inhibits oxidation of iodide, organification (coupling) of iodine -> inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis
PTU blocks 5'deiodinase -> decreased peripheral T4->T3 conversion

Use: Hyperthyroidism, PTU in pregnancy
SE: Skin rash, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, Hepatoxicity - PTU
Methimazole - teratogen (aplastic cutis); CI in pregnancy;

12

Levothyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)

MOA: TH replacement
Use: Hypothryroidism, myxedema, weight loss (off label)
SE: Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias

13

Conivaptan, Tolvaptan

ADH antagonists
Use: SIADH, block ADH action at V2 receptor

14

Desmopressin acetate

Use: Central (not nephrogenic) DI

15

Growth Hormone

Use: Turner syndrome, GH deficiency

16

Oxytocin

Stimulate labor, uterine contraction, milk letdown; control uterine hemorrhage

17

Somatostatin (octreotide)

Use: Acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices

18

Demeclocycline

ADH antagonist
Use: SIADH
SE: Nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, bone and teeth abnl

19

Glucocorticoids

Beclomethasone, Dexamethasone, fludrocortisone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisone, prednisone

Moa: Metabolic, catabolic, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive by GC response elements; inhibits Phospholipase A2; and inihbits trxn factors: NF-kB

Use: Addison disease, immunossuppression, asthma

SE: Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome, adrenal insufficiency when abruptly stopped drug, adrenocortical atrophy, steroid diabetes

20

Cinacalcet

Moa: sensitizes Ca sensing receptor in PTH glands to circulating Ca -> decreased PTH release

Use: Hypercalcemia due to 1 or 2 HyperPTH

SE: Hypocalcemia