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Flashcards in Resp Drugs Deck (19):
1

Diphenhydramine, Chlorpheniramine

1st generation H1 blockers - reversible
Use: Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid
Tox: Sedation, anti-muscarinic, anti-alpha-adrenergic

2

Loratadine, fexofenadine, deloratidine, cetirizine

-adines
2nd generation H1 blockers - reversible
Use: Allergy
Tox: less sedating than 1st generation due to decreased entry into CNS

3

Guaifenesin

Expectorant - thins resp secretions; does not suppress cough reflex

4

N-acetylcysteine

Mucolytic - loosen mucous plugs in CF patients; disrupts disulfide bonds
Also antidote for acetaminophen overdose

5

Dextromethorphan

Antitussive (relieve cough)
Antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors
Codeine analog
Opiod effect if excess; Naloxone for opioid overdose
Can cause Serotonin syndrome

6

Pseudophedrine, phenylephrine

Alpha adrenergic agonists - nasal decongestant

Use: reduce hyperemia, edema, nasal congestion;
open obstructed eustachian tubes
(psuedo used to make meth)

Tox: HTN, CNS stimulation/anxiety

7

Bosentan

Pulmonary hypertension drug
Endothelin receptor antagonists -> decrease pulmonary vascular resistance

8

Sildenafil

Pulmonary HTN drug
PDE5 inhibitor
cGMP PDE5 inhibitor; Prolong Vasodilator effect of NO
Also used to treat Erectile Dysfunction

9

Epoprostenol, Iloprost

Prostacyclin analog (PGI2) - vasodilators
direct pulmonary vasodilator and on systemic arteries
Inhibits platelet aggregation

Tox: Flushing, jaw pain

10

Asthma drug targets

Bronchoconstriction mediated by
1) inflammatory process
2) parasympathetic tone (Ach) -> bronchoconstriction

11

Albuterol

short acting B2 agonist; relaxes bronchial smooth muscle

Use: Acute exacerbation

12

Salmeterol, formoterol

Long acting B2 agonist
Use: prophylaxis

Tox: tremors, arrhythmia

13

Fluticasone, budenoside

Corticosteroids
Inhibit Cytokine synthesis: inactivate NF-kB (Trxn factor) that induce TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents

Use: 1st line for chronic asthma

14

Ipratropium

Muscarinic antagonist (blocks Ach receptors) -> prevents bronchoconstriction

Use: Asthma. also for COPD

15

Montelukast, Zafirlukast

Antileukotriene
Leukotrience receptor blocker

Use: esp for Aspirin induced asthma

16

Zileuton

Antileukotriene

Moa: 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor; Blocks conversion of Arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
Use: Asthma

Tox: Hepatotoxicity

17

Omalizumab

Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody

BInds IgE on mast cells and unbound IgE
Use: Allergic asthma RESISTANT to inhaled steroids and long acting Beta agonists

18

Theophylline

Methylxanthines

Bronchodilation by Inhibiting PDE -> increase cAMP
(PDE hydrolyzes cAMP)
Also blocks Adenosine (induces bronchoconstriction)

Use: limited due to narrow therapeutic index - causes cardio and neurotoxicity
Metabolized by CytP450

19

Methacholine

M3 agonist
Bronchial challenge test - diagnose asthma