MC type of thyroid CA
papillary carcinoma (60-70%)
MC cause of hypothyroid
MC cause of hyperthyroid
Medullary thyroid carcinoma etio? most often UL or BL?
Sporadic (UL) or familial (BL)
With medullary carcinoma, ____ cells proliferate
parafollicular C cells
MC form of Diabetes
2nd MC? 3rd MC?
Type 2 (85-95%) Type 1 (5-10%) Type 1.5 (5%)
Insulin is secreted by ___ cells
Glucagon is secreted by ___ cells
What is the pathology of Type 1 diabetes?
AI reaction to islet cells and insulin, most are directed against GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase)
Name for insulin-secreting tumors. Pancreatic tumor derived from beta cells
non-beta islet cell tumors of pancreas (gastrinomas)
severe ulcer dz
Gastrinoma MC in what organs
gastrin –> incr HCL
Which MEN syndrome assoc with Zollinger Ellison
Silent and hormone negative adenomas are more likely to be _____ (micro/macro)adenomas
Gross appearance of typical pituitary adenoma
soft well-circumscribed lesion that may be confined to sella tursica
Pituitary adenomas that expand into suprasellar region often compress what structure?
Histo of pituitary adenoma?
Uniform, small polygonal or round cells arranged in sheets or cords. Sparse reticulin. Sparse mitotic activity.
Histo: What has marked hypercellularity?
Autoantibodies in Graves
Autoantibodies in Hashimotos
Histo: What has columnar hyperplastic epithelium, prominent infoldings
Histo: What has mitoses, dk staining, and is undifferentiated?
Anaplastic thyroid CA
PTH secreted by ____ cells _____ (incr/decr) calcium
Calcitonin secreted by ____ cells _____ (incr/decr) calcium
Parafollicular C cells, decrease
MC cause of primary hyperparathyroidism
MC cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism
MC cause of primary Addison’s dz.
autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex
Waterhouse-Frederickson syndrome is assoc with what condition?
secondary Addison’s dz (hemorrhage into adrenal glands)
Primary or Secondary Addison's Dz? A) hyperpigmentation B) low ACTH C) high ACTH D) no hyperpigmentation
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is associated with what enzyme deficiency?
21-Hydroxylase deficiency (95% of cases)
What cells are associated with pheochromocytoma
chromaffin cells (within adrenal medulla)
Primary hyperaldosteronism is also called ____ and is usu dt adrenal adenoma
MC cause of Cushing’s syndrome
long term use of glucocorticoids (exogenous)
Cushing’s syndrome or disease?
A) pituitary tumors cause
B) adrenal adenomas cause
C) ectopic tumors cause
DM 1, 2, or 1.5? A) test positive for Islet cell Ab B) lymphocytic infiltration C) insulin resistance and B cell dysfunction D) pink hyalinization and amyloid
A) 1 and 1.5
What is the differentiation in size between a micro and a macroadenoma? Which is MC?
Micro 10 mm
Histo: What has irregularly enlarged and flattened epithelium
nontoxic multinodular goiter
Histo: What has granuloma, multinucleated giant cells?
Histo: What has lymphocytic infiltration, Hurthle cells?
Histo: What has amyloid stroma?
Histo: What is encapsulated, well-differentiated, has follicles containing colloid, has greater size variability?
Histo: What has fronds, psamomma bodies?