MC cause of urethritis
2nd MC cause of urethritis?
Urethritis following gonorrhea or chlamydia infx assoc with this dz
Name for rash on bottoms of feet in reactive arthritis
Shallow painless ulcers at meatus and glans penis assoc with reactive arthritis
Infx agent in syphilis? Special stain?
Treponema pallidum (spirochete). Silver stain
Name for granulomatous growth in tertiary syphilis
Feature of secondary syphilis
HPV strains assoc with condyloma acuminata
6 and 11 (90%)
Ring of peripheral blanching around a psoriatic plaque
Female genital condition associated with white or pale thickening of skin of vulva
Lichen Sclerosis or Lichen Planus? A) Flattening or disappearance of rete pegs B) Saw tooth appearance of rete pegs C) Thickening of granular cell layer D) Dermis replaced by CT
Histo of genital herpes
Nuclei have ground glass appearance
Multinucleated giant cells
MC birth defect of male genitalia
cryptorchism (undescended testes)
2nd MC birth defect of male genitalia. Explain what it is.
hypospadias (urethral opening on ventral aspect of penis)
What is the birth defect of male genitalia where urethral meatus opens on dorsum of penis?
Common or rare?
What is the condition where the foreskin cannot be fully retracted over the glans of the penis? Risk?
Phimosis. Penile CA
Condition where the foreskin becomes trapped behind the glans. Risk?
Paraphimosis. Penile CA
Varicocele, Hydrocele, or Torsion?
A) assoc with bell clapper deformity - congenital
B) fluid accumulation (secreted by tunica vaginalis)
C) 85-90% on left side
D) enlargement of vein draining testicles
Urethritis: Gonococcal or non-Gonococcal? A) purulent d/c B) clear d/c C) granulated cytoplasmic inclusions D) chlamydia
% of testicular cancers A) mixed B) seminoma C) embryonal carcinoma D) teratoma
Embryonal or seminoma testicular CA? A) Alpha fetoprotein elevated B) Assoc with placental alk phos (PLAP) C) Elev hCG D) Present in 90% of mixed tumors
C) embryonal (sometimes seminoma)
MC solid malignant tumor in males 20-35 yo
Primary testicular tumors
BV, Trich, or Candida?
A) fishy odor, high vaginal pH
B) foamy d/c
C) clue cells
A) BV and Trich
BV, Trich, or Candida?
A) itching, burning
B) cottage cheese d/c
C) odor absent, pH low
A) Trich, Candida
Chlamydia or Gonorrhea? A) polymorphic leukocytes B) friable C) caused by gram neg intra or extracellular diplococci D) causes pain on urination in males
A) N. gonorrhea
C) N. gonorrhea
What are risk factors for cervical CA?
early age at first intercourse, multiple partners, male partner w/ previous partners, persistent detection of high risk HPV, presence of CA assoc HPV strains, OCP, tobacco, Hx of genital infx, multiparity
What HPV strains are MC associated with cervical CA?
16, 18, 31, 45 (mostly 16 and 18)
What genetic marker is associated with cervical CA?
What Pap/CIN class? A) atypia, koilocytosis begins B) mild dysplasia C) moderate dysplasia D) severe dysplasia E) cancer
A) II B) III/CIN I C) III/CIN II D) III/CIN III E) V
Koilocytosis: CIN I, CIN II, or CIN III?
A) diffuse atypia, loss of normal cell maturation
B) widespread dysregulation of cell cycle controls
C) enlarged nuclei, stain darkly w halo-like appearance
D) upregulation of p16ink4 characterizes high risk HPV
A) CIN III
B) CIN II
C) CIN I
D) CIN II
Histo of cervical carcinoma in situ
loss of maturation of squamous epithelium
high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
Histo of endocervical CA
enlarged, prominent round or oval nuclei
irregular chromatin distribution
DNA poxvirus that infects skin or mucous membranes. Unlike herpes it does not remain in the body when the skin lesions are gone.
Female genital condition assoc w incr risk of vulvar CA
Can syphilis be congenital?
Yes, can be vertical transfer
Condition with hyperpigmented skin plaques. Lesions of red, white, yellow, or multi-pigmented plaques.
More than 90% of cases of VIN are assoc w these strains of HPV
16, 18, 31, 45
MC site of implantation of ectopic endometrial cells
Ovarian cyst that is formed as a consequence of ectopic endometrial tissue that bleeds within the ovary
endometrioma (chocolate cyst)
Presence of ectopic endometrial tissue within myometrium
Characterized by the presence of micro-abscesses or neutrophils within the endometrial glands
Characterized by the presence of plasma cells in the stroma
MC gynecologic CA in US.
Most common type of endometrial CA?
20% of endometrial CA are papillary serous carcinoma. These are assoc with what mutation?
Discrete, well-circumscribed benign tumors often round, firm and gray white when sectioned
MC type of ovarian tumor
serous cystadenoma, benign
Psammoma bodies are assoc with
ovarian serous cystadenoma
tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of more than one germ layer
MC type of ovarian CA (what tissue)
What is one way to differentiate between syphilis and genital herpes?
Lesions of syphilis are painless. Genital herpes very painful.
“string of pearls” appearance of cysts
Lots of clear/pale cytoplasm, glycogen. lobular cells, intervening stroma, prominent nuclei and nuclear membranes
seminoma testicular CA
Crowded pleomrph nuclei, nuc atypia, mitosis common
embryonal testicular CA