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Flashcards in endocrine Deck (91):
1

What is responsible for regression of female internal structures in XY males?

Presence of mullerian inhibiting factor

2

What is the age at which precocious puberty can be defined?

In boys - age 9
In girls - age 7

3

What is the first step in diagnosis of a child with premature adrenarche?

Bone age

4

What is the appropriate treatment in a child with premature adrenarche but normal bone age?

Follow clinically

5

What androgens are typically high in premature adrenarche?

DHEA and DHEAS

6

What may be a cause of premature adrenarche?

Exogenous or endogenous androgen OR late onset CAH

7

What should be done in a child with premature adrenarche and advance bone age?

ACTH stimulation test and
Serum testosterone

8

What is the cause of premature thelarche?

Exogenous or endogenous estrogen OR premature activation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis

9

What is the underlying cause of persistant Müllerian duct syndrome ?

Mullerian inhibiting substance not formed or there is a lack of receptors

10

What is the diagnosis in an XY male with formation of uterus, Fallopian tubes and upper vagina?

Persistant Müllerian duct syndrome

11

What is the phenotypic findings in klinefelter syndrome ?

Small testicles and penis
No internal or external female genitalia

12

What is the inheritance pattern of androgen insensitivity ?

X linked

13

What is the underlying cause of an XY male with no external male genitalia and a blind ending vagina with no uterus?

Androgen insensitivity - peripheral receptors are resistant to testosterone

14

Which 3 syndromes may present with panhypopituitarism?

Prader Willi
Kallmann
Septo-optic dysplasia

15

What condition is due to increased androgen causing ambiguous genitalia in females and excessive scrotal pigmentation in males?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

16

How is CAH inherited?

Autosomal recessive

17

What is the most common cause of CAH?

21 hydroxylase deficiency

18

What lab findings will be present in congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

Low Na
High K
High 17 hydroxyprogesterone

19

How is prenatal screening for CAH performed?

Molecular genetic testing of fetal cells
NOT via amniotic fluid measurement of 17 hydroxyprogesterone

20

What should be done if 17 hydroxyprogesterone assay is positive?

Repeat. If positive again, get serum electrolytes and urinary excretion of Na/k

21

How is congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated?

Hydrocortisone

22

What is the name of primary adrenal deficiency ?

Addison

23

What are the classic symptoms of Addison disease?

Hyperpigmentation due to high ACTH
Low Na and high K due to low aldosterone

24

How is secondary adrenal deficiency different from primary adrenal deficiency?

In secondary deficiency...
The problem is the pituitary gland
Normal ACTH (no hyperpigmentation)
Normal aldosterone (normal K and Na)

25

What symptoms can present if a patient abruptly stops taking glucocorticoids?

Signs of adrenal insufficiency ...muscle weakness, decreased BP, increased pulse

26

What 3 studies should be done if you suspect Turner syndrome ?

Karyotype
LH:FSH
TSH (Turner associated with hypothyroidism)

27

What diagnosis should you consider in a short female with scant Breast tissue and pedal edema?

Turner syndrome

28

Which disease should you consider in a patient with disproportionate short stature?

Achondroplasia

29

What disease shows early puberty followed by accelerated growth that ends with short adult height?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

30

What disease should you consider in an 11 year old with delayed bone age who is overweight?

Hypothyroidism

31

What is the most important determinant for ultimate adult height in a child who is tall for age?

Sexual maturity rating

32

What disease should you consider in a male with gynecomastia and learning disability?

Klinefelter

33

What disease should you consider in a child with tall statue who suffers from sudden death?

Marfan syndrome

34

What is the main fatal developmental anomaly in Marfan syndrome ?

Cardiac defect (Aortic aneurysm )

35

What disease presents as a tall child with large head circumference and cognitive deficits?

Soto's syndrome

36

What diagnosis should you consider in a patient who is tall and overweight but has advanced bone age?

High caloric intake

37

What is the likely explanation of a patient on levothyroxine whose T4 and TsH levels are both elevated?

Poor compliance

38

What can be the long term consequences of delayed treatment of hypothyroidism?

Learning disability and diminished fine motor skills

39

What diagnosis should you consider in a newborn with poor feeding, hypotonia, Macroglossia and a hoarse cry?

Hypothyroidism

40

How long after treatment of started should T4 and TSH levels be rechecked?

1 month

41

In secondary hypothyroidism, are TSH levels low or high?

TSH levels may be low or normal (dz is due to poor function of hypothalamus or pituitary gland)

42

What is the other name for chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis?

Hashimotos

43

What is the most common cause of goiter in adolescence?

Hashimotos

44

What antibodies may be abnormal in hashimotos ?

Anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase

45

What are the presenting symptoms of hashimotos?

Hypothyroidism (most commonly)
Can present in thyrotoxicosis with transient high thyroid hormone

46

What disease is cause by thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin?

Graves' disease

47

What disease may present with decreased muscle strength, hyperactivity and lid lag?

Graves' disease

48

What GU symptoms may be present in Graves' disease?

Increased urination at night
Decreased menstrual flow
Decreased frequency of menses

49

How can you distinguish Graves' disease from subacute thyroiditis?

Radioactive iodine uptake will be high in graves but low in subacute thyroiditis

50

What would be the treatment for Subacute thyroiditis?

Supportive care / monitor

51

What disease may cause irritability, tremors and SVT in the immediate newborn period ?

Neonatal thyrotoxicosis

52

What is the treatment for neonatal thyrotoxicosis?

Methimazole or propylthiouracil
Radioactive iodine
Thyroidectomy

53

What do you do if you discover a solitary thyroid nodule in an adolescent?

FNA !! Watchful waiting is the WRONG answer

54

What type of radiation is a risk factor for thyroid cancer?

Ionizing radiation (UV radiation is not a risk factor)

55

How do you distinguish a hot vs cold thyroid nodule?

Fine needle aspiration biopsy ( 131 iodine scan is no longer the correct answer)

56

When should you suspect thyroid binding globulin (TBG) deficiency?

Abnormally low T4
Normal free T4
Euthyroid patient
Normal TSH

57

What is the treatment for thyroid binding globulin deficiency?

Nothing! Normal free T4 is maintained

58

What are the 4 ways to diagnose diabetes based on glucose levels?

2 random values >200.
Symptoms + 1 random glucose >200
Fasting glucose >126
2hr post GTT >200

59

When should patients with type 1 diabetes have lipid level testing?

Starting at age 12

60

When should type 1 diabetics have eye exams?

Starting at age 10

61

If a patient comes in with high Na which corrects with rehydration, what should you consider?

Siadh

62

When should bicarb be given to a patient in dka ?

When PH is <7.1 and only to bring it up to 7.2
Do not use if hypokalemia unless K supplements have been started !!

63

How can you distinguish type 1 and type 2 diabetes via labwork?

Autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells are present in type 1

64

You are evaluating an obese child with acanthosis nigricans. What is the most likely lab finding?

Low HDL - trick question because acanthosis is correlated with insulin resistance not necessarily diabetes

65

What are the 5 components of metabolic syndrome ?

High triglycerides
Low HDL
HTN
Fasting glucose >100
Truncal obesity

66

What is the definition of hypercalcemia?

Calcium >11

67

What are the 4 main causes of hypercalcemia ?

Williams syndrome
Ingestion (vit A and D, thiazides)
Skeletal dysplasia or immobilization
Hyperparathyroid

68

What is the appropriate treatment for a child who has been bedridden for a prolonged period of time who develops high calcium but is otherwise well appearing?

Fluids, LASIx and EKG monitoring

69

What is the definition of hypocalcemia?

Ionized Calcium <4.5 or total calcium <8.5

70

What diagnosis should you consider in a patient with muscle spasms, seizures, vomiting and prolonged QT?

Hypocalcemia

71

What is the name & cause of the finding where muscle contraction occurs when tapping anterior to the ear lobe?

Chvostek sign / hypocalcemia

72

What is the name and cause of the carpal muscle spasm with blood pressure cuff inflation?

Trousseau sign / hypocalcemia

73

What are the 5 main causes of hypocalcemia?

Pseudohypoparathyroidism
Poor nutrition
Digeorge syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
Renal insufficiency

74

What is the likely diagnosis in a patient with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia?

Vitamin D deficiency

75

What is the likely diagnosis in a patient with hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia?

Hypoparathyroidism

76

What are the values of PTH and calcium in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism?

High PTH and low calcium

77

What is the underlying problem in an LGA infant who is hypoglycemic and hypocalcemic?

Diabetic mother

78

What is the likely diagnosis in a patient with seizures resistant to diazepam treatment?

Hypocalcemia

79

What are the 4 risk factors for developing rickets?

Breastfeeding without vit D supplement
Poor exposure to sunlight
Low birth weight / prematurity
Anticonvulsant medications

80

What are the 2 causes of rickets?

Low calcium and/or low phosphate

81

What diagnosis should you consider in a patient with bone pain, anorexia, poor growth, widening wrists and delayed tooth eruption?

Rickets

82

What is rachitic rosary?

Enlarged costochondral junctions due to rickets

83

What lab findings confirm vitamin D deficient rickets?

High PTH
Low calcium
Low phosphate
Low 25 hydroxy vitamin D

84

What is the cause of vitamin D dependent rickets type 1?

Inadequate renal production of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D

85

How would you know the difference between the autosomal recessive vs nutritional deficiency as the cause of rickets?

In vitamin D dependent rickets there will be no clinical improvement with vitamin d replacement

86

What are the lab findings in vitamin D dependent rickets?

Low calcium
Low phosphate
Very low 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D
Normal 25-hydroxy vitamin D

87

What is the difference between vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 and 2?

Type 1 has decrease 1,25dihydroxy vitamin D due to poor production
Type 2 has high 1,25dihydroxy vitamin D due to end organ resistance

88

What is the cause X linked hypophospatemic rickets?

Excessive phosphate loss through the kidneys

89

What is the treatment for X linked hypophospatemic rickets?

Phosphate and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D

90

In which form of rickets is the PTH normal?

Vitamin d resistant (X linked familial hypophospatemia)

91

What is responsible for the formation of male external genitals in XY infants?

Presence of androgens