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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (45)
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what is the difference between primary and secondary disease

primary - problem with the actual gland, graves disease
secondary - a problem in another gland is having an effect on the secretions of another gland


what stimulates release of hormones from pituitary gland

hormones or nerve activation from hypothalamis


what hormones are released from pituitary gland

anterior - acth, growth hormone, fsh, lh, tsh
posterior - adh, prolactin


what are the types of tumour in the pituitary gland

functional - can still release hormones but levels may be skewered,
non-functional - no release of hormones


what is the change of hormones released in functional tumours at different ages

younger than 40 - increase in ACTH, stimulates release of cortisol, result in cushings disease
older than 40 - growth hormone, results in acromegaly


what is acromegaly

increase in GH but bones have fused so growing bones cannot grow any longer. instead, get increase of bulk in bones in mandible, skull, nose, fingers, feet, and increase in thickness of soft tissue


how can acromegaly be tested for

GH test isnt stable, instead measure insulin like growth factor - might have increased spacing or loose fitting denture


what can cause hyperthroidism

graves disease - antibody fitting into TSH receptor, stimulating production of thyroid hormone
tumour - more likely to be primary than secondary


what are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism

symptoms - sweating, fast heart rate, anxious, ophthalamopy
signs - tachycardia, warm skin, atrial fibrillation, higher BP, goitre


how can hyperthyroidism be treated

carbimazole, blocks action of T4, beta blockers to reduce effect, surgery to reduce size


what can cause hypothyroidism

hashimoto's disease - antigens stimulating production of antibodies against thyroid gland
secondary - non-functioning adenoma in pituitary


what are the symptoms of hypothyroidism

symptoms - weight gain, constipation, tiredness
signs - bradycardia, hyperlipidaemia, dry coarse skin


how can hypothyroidism be treated

by giving thyroxin


how would blood test help to define the cause of hyperthyroidism

all causes will have high T3
low TSH - primary cause - graves disease
high TSH - secondary cause - pituitary


how would blood test help to define cause of hypothyroidism

all causes will have low T3
low TSH - secondary cause - pituitary tumour
high TSH - primary cause - hashimotos disease


what is the difference between diabetes mellitus and insipidus

mellitus - to do with glucose levels in the blood, hyperglycaemia
insipidus - lack of ADH so unable to concentrate urine


how can diabetes mellitus be diagnosed

random glucose test - not always accurate, glucose levels may be high if just ate carbohydrates
fasting test - levels of glucose normally
glucose tolerance test - measure levels before eating then 2 hours after, if above 11.1 - diabetes


what causes type 1 diabetes

autoimmune disease against insulin, unable to get glucose into cells, antibodies may be - islet cell autoantibody, insulin auto antibodies, glutamic acid decarboxylase


what symptoms are present in type 1

diabetes symptoms - polyuria, polydipsia and tiredness
also hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis


what is ketoacidosis

diabetics are unable to get glucose into cells so instead use ketones for energy production. acid is produced as a by product, this increases acid in body - can be dangerous or fatal


how is type 2 diabetes diagnosed

normally from non-type 1


why are type 2 diabetics less likely to go into ketoacidosis

they have a low level of insulin to prevent it, normally present before it gets to this stage, however, if left long enough they will


what causes type 2 diabetes

poor diet and lack of exercise, constantly releasing insulin, cells become desensitised, also eventually run out of insulin


what complications are normally associated with type 2 diabetes

hyperlipidaemia, cardiovascular problems, more unusual infections


what are symptoms of type 2 diabetes

obesity, hypertension, infections, hyperglycaemia


compare type 1 and type 2

type 1 - hyperglycaemia with ketoacidosis, presents with diabetic symptoms (polyuria, polydipsia, tiredness), young and thin
type 2 - old and fat, more complications (infections and cardiovascular problems), less likely to go into ketoacidosis


how is type 1 diabetes managed

insulin injections. can be done by themselves or nurse. doing it themselves - more control over it, can eat when they like, if a nurse - only get it twice a day so need to plan around insulin injections


how is type 2 diabetes managed

changing lifestyle, diet and exercise, may be on drugs to improve insulin release and increase sensitivity to insulin (sulphonylureas and biguanides)


what is hypoglycaemia

low blood sugar levels, when take insulin and dont eat, levels get too low, can cause dizzyness, increase in hR and confusion before unconsciousness


what are some complications of diabetes

hypo, large vessel disease - increased risk of atherosclerosis, angina and hypertension
small vessel disease - poor wound healing, increased infection risk, neuropathy