Endocrine control of growth Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Endocrine control of growth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine control of growth Deck (31):
1

3 types of growth

normal, catch-up, compensatory

2

Phases of normal growth

fetal (rapid), postnatal, pubertal, adulthood, senscent (may be a decline)

3

What is required for normal growth?

proper nutrition, sufficient hormones, good psychosocial enviornment

4

Hormones involved in prenatal growth which grows to 30% of adult growth?

insulin, hpL

5

Hormones involved in infantile growth which lasts 0-1 years

insulin

6

Hormones involved in junvenile growth which lasts 1-12 years and 85-88% of adult height

insulin, hGH, T3, VD

7

Hormones involved in adolescent growth

insulin, hGH, T3, sex steroids, VD

8

What does excess GH cause?

increase linear growth, normal skeletal maturation, but an increased affect on adult stature. Gigantism, increase to genetic potential?

9

What does deficiency in GH cause?

decrease linear growth, delayed skeletal maturation, increase dwarfism (hyposomatotropic dwarfism)

10

What does excess TH cause?

slight increase in linear growth, slight advance in skeletal maturation, minimal effect on adult stature

11

What does TH deficiency cause

decrease linear growth, delayed skeletal maturation, negative affect of adult stature

12

What does cortisol excess cause?

decreased linear growth, delayed skeletal maturation, negative affect on skeletal maturation

13

What does androgen excess cause?

increase followed be decrease in linear growth, advanced in skeletal maturation, negative effect on adult stature

14

What does androgen deficiency cause?

increase linear growth, delayed skeletal maturation, eunuchoidal (tall with long arms and legs)

15

What does rx with low dose estrogen cause?

increase linear growth, normal skeletal maturation, normal adult stature

16

What does rx with excess/moderate dose estrogen cause?

increase linear growth than decrease, advanced skeletal maturation, decreased adult stature

17

What does estrogen deficiency cause?

increase in linear growth, delayed skeletal maturation, increased adult stature

18

What is somatotropin?

GH

19

What is somatomedin?

SM-C/ IGF-1--> mediates some of GH actions on bone elongation and adipocytes

20

What is somatostatin?

hypothalamic peptide that inhibits GH secretion

21

What is somatocrinin?

hypothalamic peptide that stimulates GH secreation (GHRH)

22

What are the 2 structural forms of GH and what is the difference?

22K: 90% of GH, growth promoting + other metabolic actions
20K: 10% of total GH and mainly growth-promoting

23

What does isolated GH deficiency?

hyposomatotropic dwarfism

24

When does GH exert its major action on body mass?

juvenile and pubertal periods

25

When does GH exert its major action on tallness?

juvenile and pubertal periods only, synergism with then antagonism by gonadal steroids

26

Where does GH exert its major action on long bone growth?

epiphyseal growth plate

27

Secretory pattern of GH

episodic, ultraradian

28

Physiological causes of increase GH

GHRH, decreased SS, spontaneous, deep sleep, exercise, acute stress, thyroid hormone, puberty, post-prandial decrease in glucose

29

Physiological causes of decrease GH

SS, decreased GHRH, spontaneous, light sleep and waking, elevated GH, IGF1, aging, postprandial hyperglycemia, increased FFA

30

Pharm. path, provocative causes of increased GH

GHRH, estrogens, hypoglycemia/ insulin, Arg/Leu, starvation, pituitary tumor

31

Pharm/path/provocative causes of decreased GH

SS analogs, GC, hyperglycemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, pituitary tumor, progesterone