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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (41)
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1

Name one difference between the endocrine and nervous system

The nervous system reacts immediately for short term change; the endocrine system takes longer to react and its effect is long term

2

What does the endocrine system regulate?

Growth, development, and reproduction

3

How does the endocrine system relay messages?

Chemical signals

4

What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?

Anterior lobe and posterior lobe

5

Which hormones does the anterior lobe produce?

ACTH, GH, TSH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH

6

Which hormones does the posterior lobe produce?

OXT and ADH

7

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

8

GH

growth hormone

9

TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone

10

PRL

prolactin

11

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

12

LH

luteinizing hormone

13

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

14

Some organs with secondary endocrine functions

Heart, thymus, adipose tissue, digestive tract, kidneys, gonads

15

What is direct communication

An exchange of ions and molecules between adjacent cells across gap junctions

16

Which communication is highly specialized and relatively rare

Direct communication

17

Which communication occurs between two cells of the same type?

Direct communication

18

Which communication uses chemical signals to transfer information from cell to cell within single tissue

paracrine communication

19

what is the most common form of intercellular communication

paracrine communication

20

What is endocrine communication

Endocrine cells release chemicals (hormones) into bloodstream

21

What are target cells

Specific cells that possess receptors needed to bind and read hormonal messages

22

What do hormones do

They stimulate synthesis of enzymes or structural proteins, increases rate of synthesis, and turns existing enzyme or membrane channels on or off

23

For what is synaptic communication ideal?

Crisis management

24

Where does synaptic comm. occur?

across synaptic clefts

25

What is the chemical message in a synaptic comm.?

Neurotransmitter

26

T/F Synaptic comm. is limited to a very specific area

True

27

What are the three groups of hormones

Amino acid derivatives, peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives

28

For how long do free hormones remain functional?

less than 1 hour

29

How are free hormones broken down?

absorbed by cells of liver or kidney, or broken down by enzymes in plasma or interstitial fluids

30

What is a hormone receptor

A protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly

31

What determines hormonal sensitivity?

Presence or absence of specific receptor

32

The pituitary gland is also called?

hypophysis

33

How is the pituitary gland connected to the hypothalamus? Where is it in relation?

infundibulum, hangs inferior to hypothalamus

34

What is the anterior lobe of pit gland also called?

adenophypophysis

35

What are the three regions of the pit gland?

Pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia

36

What are the difference between releasing hormones (RH) and inhibiting hormones (IH)

One stimulates synthesis/secretion of a hormone, one prevents synthesis/secretion

37

By what is rate of secretion controlled?

Negative feedback

38

What is the posterior lobe of pit gland also called?

neurohypophysis

39

What does the posterior lobe contain?

unmyelinated axons of hypothalamic

40

What is OXT?

oxytocin

41

What is ADH?

antidiuretic hormones