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Flashcards in endocrine system Deck (40)
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1

Endocrine System

- Organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
- Controls the function of other target organs
- Long distance communication

2

Primary Endocrine Organs

1. Hypothalamus
2. Pituitary
3. Pineal
4. Thyroid and Parathyroid
5. Thymus
6. Adrenal Gland
7. Pancreas
8. Testes and Ovaries

3

Hypothalamus Structure

Structure: neural secretory cells and nuclei that connect to the pituitary gland

4

Hypothalamus function

controls release of pituitary hormones

5

neural secretory cells

neurons that secrete hormones at axon terminal

6

hypothalamus secretes

releasing and inhibiting tropic hormones to the anterior pituitary gland

7

tropic hormones

secreted from one gland, causes another gland to secrete

8

hypothalamus connections

posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary

9

Hypothalamus

Structure: neural secretory cells and nuclei that connect to the pituitary gland
neural secretory cells: neurons that secrete hormones at axon terminal
function: controls release of pituitary hormones
secretes: releasing and inhibiting tropic hormones to the anterior pituitary gland
tropic hormones: secreted from one gland, causes another gland to secrete

10

hypothalamus - posterior pituitary connection

1. neurons in hypothalamus synthesizes and secretes hormones
-supraoptic nucleus: oxytocin
-paraventricular nucleus: antidiuretic hormone
2. hormones stored in terminal vesicles in posterior pituitary
3. when stimulated, vesicles release hormones in capillary beds of posterior pituitary

11

hypothalamus - anterior pituitary connection

-portal system-
1. stimulated neurosecretory cells release hormones in 1st capillary bed
2. 1st capillary bed - portal vein - 2nd capillary bed
3. hormones exit capillaries - stimulate AP endocrine cells
4. AP endocrine cells secrete hormones in capillaries

12

pituitary gland

posterior
anterior

13

posterior pituitary gland structure

neural tissue (axon terminals) from hypothalamus

14

posterior pituitary gland secretes

1. Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
targets: kidneys
results: increase water reabsorption
2. Oxytocin
targets: uterus and breasts
results: uterine contraction and milk expulsion

15

anterior pituitary gland structure

epithelial tissue

16

anterior pituitary gland secretes

1. prolactin
2. thyroid stimulating hormone
3. adrenocorticotropic hormone
4. growth hormone
5. luteinizing hormone
6. follicle stimulating hormone

17

prolactin

prolactin- controlled by hypothalamus
prolactin releasing hormone
prolactin inhibiting hormone (dopamine)
acts on breasts
results: milk secretion and mammary gland development

18

thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH-controlled by hypothalamus
thyrotropin releasing hormone causes the release of thyroid stimulating hormone
acts on thyroid gland
results: release thyroid hormones -- metabolism

19

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTH-controlled by hypothalamus
corticotropin releasing hormone
acts on adrenal gland
results: glucocorticoids--stress response

20

growth hormone

GH- controlled by hypothalamus
growth hormone releasing hormone
growth hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin)
acts on liver and cells
results: releases insulin like growth factors (liver)
signals growth and metabolism (cells)

21

another name for growth hormone inhibiting hormone GHIH

somatostatin

22

another name for antidiuretic hormone ADH

vasopressin

23

luteinizing hormone

LH-controlled by hypothalamus
gonadotropin releasing hormone
acts on ovaries and testes
results: ovulation, secretion of sex hormones

24

follicle stimulating hormone

FH - controlled by hypothalamus
gonadotropin releasing hormone
acts on ovaries and testes
results: development of egg and sperm

25

pineal gland

structure: epithelial tissue in brain
secretes: melatonin
results: regulate circadian rhythms

26

thyroid

structure: butterfly structure, ventral surface of trachea
secretes: tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine T3) - increase metabolism
calcitonin - lowers calcium levels, deposition in bone

27

parathyroid

structure: 4 small glands behind thyroid
secretes: parathyroid hormone
results: increase calcium levels

28

thymus

structure: two lobed gland in front of heart
secretes: thymosin
result: T Cell functional regulation

29

adrenal gland

structure: multilayered glands above the kidneys (suprarenal)
cortex
medulla

30

cortex-
what does cortex mean?
what does it secrete? what are the results?

outer layer
secretes:
mineral corticoids (aldosterone)
glucocorticoids (cortisol)
androgens
results:
-stimulate Na+ reabsorption, K+ secretion in kidneys
-catabolism of fats and proteins, raises blood glucose, stress response
-promotes sex drive

31

medulla-
the meaning?
what does it secrete?
results?

inner core
secretes: epinephrine and norepinephrine
results: increased heart rate, mobilization of energy sources

32

pancreas structure

structure: exocrine and endocrine glands below stomach
exocrine cells-acinar cells
endocrine cells-islets of langerhans

33

exocrine cells function

secrete enzymes to GI tract

34

endocrine cells

alpha cells
beta cells
delta cells
F cells

35

-alpha cells-
secretes?
results?

alpha cells
secrete: glucagon
results: raises blood glucose
-- glycogenolysis
-- gluconeogenesis

36

-beta cells-
secretes?
results?

beta cells
secrete: insulin
results: lowers blood glucose/ promotes energy storage

37

-delta cells-
secretes?
results?

delta cells
secrete: somatostatin
results: inhibits secretion of pancreatic hormone

38

-F Cells-
secrete?
results?

F cells
secrete: pancreatic polypeptide
results: inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretions

39

Testes
secrete, results

testes: males
secrete: androgens
result: sperm production, sex drive, secondary sex characteristics

40

Ovaries
secrete, results

ovaries: female
secrete: estrogens
result: follicular development, secondary sex characteristics