Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (38)
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1

Endocrine glands are associated with

many capillaries

2

peptide hormones

need 2nd messenger; act at level of cell membrane

3

steroid hormones

act inside nucleus

4

Hypophysis contains

anterior and posterior pituitary

5

Anterior pituitary produces

its own hormones

6

Hormones of the posterior pituitary are made in the

hypothalamus but stored in the posterior pituitary

7

Anterior pituitary cells

acidophils, basophils, chromophobes

8

acidophils stain _______ and produce __________

pink; GH and prolactin

9

basophils stain ________ and produce ___________

blue; TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, and MSH

10

chromophobes stain

clear

11

Posterior pituitary produces

vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin

12

Pituitary appearance

2 distinct regions: pars nervosa (PP) and pars anterior (AP) divided by pars intermedia (contains vesicles)

13

Pars nervosa (PP) contains what cells?

pituicytes (supportive cells)

14

Herring body

stores hormones in posterior pituitary (no nucleus)

15

Pineal gland produces

melatonin

16

Pineal gland is sensitive to

light; light varies the secretion of melatonin

17

The sun ______ the secretion of melatonin while the moon _______ it

depresses; stimulates

18

Pineal gland hallmark

black spotches (brain sand)-->landmark for midline of brain

19

Pineal gland cells

neuroglia (supporting cells-->smaller, darker nucleus), pinealocytes (produce melatonin)

20

location of parathyroid gland

embedded in posterior aspect of thyroid

21

Thyroid T3/T4 production

Picks up iodine from environment, and passes it into the colloid where iodination occurs. Then iodinated material is taken up and passed back through the cell and released as T3/T4.

22

Thyroid epithelium

simple cuboidal unless there is a large amt of colloid in the follicle (squamous) or a little (columnar)

23

cells in thyroid gland

principle cells and c cells (parafollicular cells)

24

principle cells

produce thyroid hormone (located right up against colloid)

25

c cells (parafollicular cells)

produce calcitonin; located one cell layer away from colloid

26

calcitonin

deposits calcium into bones

27

PTH

releases Ca2+ from bones

28

oxyphil cells

large pink staining cells, full of mito; of unknown function; hallmark for parathyroid gland

29

chief cells

produce parathyroid hormone

30

adrenal gland controls

glucose and ion balance