Endocrinology/BW Flashcards Preview

Buzz Words & Brian Wallace > Endocrinology/BW > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology/BW Deck (71):
1

What two hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary?

Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin).

2

What is Sheehan's syndrome?

Ischemia of the pituitary due to volume depletion during or after childbirth.

3

How do glitazones work?

They improve insulin sensitivity.

4

What is the most common pituitary adenoma?

Prolactinoma

5

Large doughy hands should make you think of what diagnosis?

Gigantism

6

Diabetes insipidus is caused by a deficiency of which hormone?

Vasopressin

7

How much more potent is T3 than T4?

3-4x

8

What is the first line medical treatment for pheochromocytoma?

Alpha blocker. You should never use a pure beta blocker.

9

What is the best imaging for a thyroid nodule?

Ultrasound

10

Patient presents with erectile dysfunction and complains of some numbness in his feet. On second thought he has noticed significant polyuria and polydipsia. What diagnosis should you be thinking of?

Diabetic neuropathy

11

Pretibial myxedema should make you think of what diagnosis?

graves' disease

12

A 35 year old female presents with heat intolerance, weight loss and palpitations. What is the most likely diagnosis?

hyperthyroidism

13

What is the first line medical treatment for a patient who presents with palpitations and nervousness secondary to hyperthyroidism?

beta blockers

14

What is Hashimoto's disease?

an autoimmune cause of hypothyroid

15

How does levothyroxine work?

It helps convert T4 to T3

16

What is the most common thyroid cancer?

Papillary makes up about 80% of thyroid cancers.

17

In a patient with hyperthyroidism will TSH most likely be elevated or decreased?

Decreased

18

How do fibrates work to affect the lipid profile?

They inhibit synthesis of VLDL and elevate lipoprotein lipase.

19

What medication might you use prior to thyroidectomy in a patient with hyperthyroidism?

Methimazole or propylthiouracil (PTU).

20

What is included in Whipple's triad of hypoglycemia?

History of previous hypoglycemia, serum glucose of <40, immediate recovery upon administration of glucose.

21

Positive antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies should make you think of what diagnosis?

hashimoto's

22

What is the treatment of myxedema?

levothyroxine and slow warming

23

What is the most common cause of hypoparathyroid?

Post thyroidectomy with the complication of parathyroidectomy.

24

What is Chvostek's sign?

Tap on facial nerve and get a twitch with low Ca.

25

Cortical adrenal insufficiency is also known as what
disease?

Addison's disease

26

What is trousseau's sign?

Inflate BP cuff and hold for 3 minutes. Patient with low Ca will get carpel tunnel symptoms.

27

What is the most common cause of hyperparathyroidism?

Single parathyroid adenoma in 80% of cases.

28

In Cushing’s disease is ACTH elevated or decreased?

Elevated

29

What is Grave's disease?

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is an autoimmune disease

30

What specific breathing pattern is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis?

Kussmaul respirations

31

What is the least aggressive thyroid cancer?

Papillary

32

Name two tests you might use to rule out Cushing's syndrome.

24 hour free cortisol urine test and dexamethasone suppression test.

33

List two ectopic tumors that may produce ACTH and give a patient Cushing's syndrome?

Small cell lung cancer, pancreatic islet cells, thymomas.

34

What is the treatment for Addison's disease?

Hydrocortisone or prednisone

35

What is the test to begin with if you suspect pheochromocytoma?

24 hour urine for catecholamines.

36

Exophthalmos should make you think of what diagnosis?

Hyperthyroidism

37

What percentage of diabetes in the US is type 2?

80-90%

38

HLA-DR gene is a marker for what endocrine disorder?

DM type 1

39

What is the main function of parathyroid hormone?

Increase serum Ca

40

List four diagnostic criteria for diabetes?

Random glucose >200, fasting plasma >126, two hour postprandial glucose >200, HgA1c >6.5%.

41

Moans, groans, stones and bones describe symptoms of what endocrine problem?

Hyperparathryoid

42

Stocking glove should make you think of what diagnosis?

Diabetic neuropathy and B12 deficiency neuropathy.

43

Fruity breath should make you think of what diagnosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis

44

As it relates to diabetics, what is the dawn phenomenon?

Reduced insulin response between 5 and 8 am.

45

What is the most common cause of hypopituitarism?

Tumor

46

How does metformin work?

Decreases the hepatic glucose production and increases peripheral glucose uptake.

47

How do sulfonylureas medications work?

They stimulate the production of insulin.

48

What class of medications does pioglitazone (Actos) fall into?

Thiazolidinediones also known as glitazones.

49

What is the suffix associated with sulfonylureas?

Ide is the suffix. Examples: glipizide, tolbutamide, tolazamide.

50

Typically what is the first medication started in type 2 DM?

Metformin

51

How often should a diabetic's HgbA1C be checked and what should it be?

Every three months (remember the life a RBC is 90-120 days) and it should be below 6.5%.

52

What are the 5 criteria for Metabolic syndrome?

HDL 135/85, Triglycerides >150, Fasting glucose >100, Waist >40 inches in men >35 inches in women.

53

What class of medications is the first line for lowering LDL?

Statins

54

Which lipid medication may cause flushing?

Niacin

55

What life threatening side effect do statins have?

Rhabdomyolysis

56

Does niacin increase or decrease HDL?

Increase

57

What medication class does metformin (glucophage) fall into?

Biguinide

58

List the 5 insulines in order of peak efficacy?

Lispro 1-2 hrs, Regular 2-4 hrs, NPH 5-7 hrs, Lente 4-8 hrs, UltraLente 8-14 hrs.

59

Is metformin indicated or contraindicated in renal failure?

Contraindicated

60

What is the most common cause of DM type 1?

Autoimmune destruction of the islet cells in the pancreas.

61

List 4 physical exam findings for Cushing's syndrome.

Moon face, buffalo hump, purple strai, central obesity, supraclavicular fat pads, easy bruising

62

Propranolol belongs to what class of medication?

Beta blocker

63

During pregnancy which is the prefered treatment of hyperthyroidism PTU or methimazole?

PTU

64

Name the four thyroid cancers.

Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, Anaplastic

65

What heparin complication is relevant to endocrinology?

Adrenal infarct leading to a cushing's syndrome.

66

How does nicotinic acid work to affect the lipid profile?

It inhibits secretion of VLDL.

67

Hyperpigmentation of the skin along creases should make you think of what diagnosis ?

Addison's disease

68

Which thyroid cancer is the most aggressive?

Anaplastic

69

How do statins work to affect the lipid profile?

They slow the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis.

70

Will ACTH be elevated or decreased in Addison's disease?

Elevated if the problem is at the adrenal glands.

71

What role does c-peptide play in the diagnosis of diabetes?

It is a marker of insulin production. Elevated C-peptide points to DM 2. Decreased c-peptide points towards DM 1.