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Flashcards in Energy Metabolism Deck (13)
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1

Define ENERGY

Energy is the capacity to do work. All energy is obtained from the environment. It can only be transferred, not created or destroyed.

2

What does the net energy value depend on?

Depends on the amount of free energy/energy potential (ATP) produced by oxidative catabolism.

3

Define METABOLISM

Metabolism is the total chemical activity of a living organism. It is often linked to the body's ability to transform one type of energy to another.

4

What are some metabolic reactions (pathways)?

They either store or release energy:

anabolic reactions store energy - builds larger molecules from smaller ones
catabolic reactions release energy - they break down larger molecules into smaller ones

5

Define CATABOLISM

Catabolism is the break down of complex molecules into smaller ones. It releases stored chemical energy. Energy released in catabolic reactions is used to carry out biological processes that produce anabolic reactions.

6

Define METABOLIC PATHWAYS

Metabolic pathways a series of chemical reactions that start with a substrate and finish with an end product. They are often controlled by enzymes.
The end products of digestion are metabolized to transfer the energy from the food source to the horse.

7

How is glucose metabolised?

There are 4 steps of glucose metabolism. Its end produces are CO2 and H2O.
- glycolysis
- decarboxylation of pyruvate
- oxidative phosphorylation
- TCA cycle

8

Define GLYCOLYSIS

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. It converts glucose to ATP and sues energy for these reactions. Metabolizes glucose, glycerol and glycogen propionate. It can produce ATP both aerobically and anaerobically, but glucose only anaerobically.

9

Define PYRUVATE OXIDATION

Pyruvate oxidation is where pyruvate is transported to the mitochondria. It is then oxidised to CO2 and H2O and releases energy.

10

Define the TCA CYCLE

The TCA is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetylCoA, derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into ATP and carbon dioxide.

11

Define OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

Oxidative phosphorylation is a series of redox reactions within the mitochondria. Process that converts stored energy to ATP. Produces unstable oxygen as a biproduct.

12

Define ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

Anaerobic respiration is much less efficient but conducted without the presence of oxygen. Only at max capacity when galloping or doing short fast work.

13

Define METABOLIC RATE

Metabolic rate is the amount of energy used by the horse during one unit of time