Nutritive Value of Cereals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutritive Value of Cereals Deck (12)
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1

Define CEREALS

Cereals are part of the grass family. They are 85-90% dry matter. The calcium:phosphorus ratio is low. They are not the best source of vitamins/minerals, but give out fast release energy.

2

What type of glucose is present in cereals?

Alpha glucose(starch) They are non-structural carbohydrates. May be amylose or amylopectin.

3

How is starch broken down?

- hydrolysed in the small intestine by alpha amylases to yield glucose
- if there are more starch molecules than enzymes in the small intestine can cope with, then it is sent to the hindgut
- starch in the large intestine is fermented by microbes to VFAs (mainly propionate)

4

What are the energy contents of different types of cereal?

- oats have the lowest (11MJDE/kg DM). Easiest to digest as they have the simplest structure
- maize has the highest (14MJDE/kg DM). Take the longest t get to the bloodstream as they are the hardest to digest
- barley and wheat (12-13 MJDE/kg DM)

5

What is the lipid content of cereals?

Cereal oils are unsaturated (double bonds). Mainly fatty aids, that produce healthy, yellow fat.

6

Describe barley

Digested in the small intestine. Rolled barley has a moisture content of 16-18%; difficult to store and likely to grow mould. Micronised before being fed.

7

Describe bran

Acts as a laxative when wet, usually only given when a horse exhibits colic symptoms. This may be dangerous if fed suddenly - can damage the sensitive microbiota in the hindgut and cause further problems.

Traditionally used a lot but not so much in modern feeds,

8

Describe oats

Traditionally a popular horse feed. Its nutritive value depends on the proportion of husk to grain. High in oil. Readily digested in the small intestine.

9

Describe maize

High oil content. Not a good source of protein. Often low quality.

2 types:
- waxy - high in amylose
- floury - high in amylopectin

10

Define the GLYCEMIC RESPONSE
How can it be reduced?

The glycemic response is the reaction to a meal - it is the effect that food has on the blood sugar (glucose) levels after consumption. It should ride after eating and then return to normal.
Fat added to concentrates has been found to reduce the glycemic response.

11

What are some examples of cereals?

Maize, wheat, barley, oats, millet, rye

12

What is the crude protein value of cereals?

8-12%