# Energy - Paper 1 Flashcards

## To revise the energy topic (paper 1)

1
Q

What is a system?

A

an object or group of objects

2
Q

Describe the energy changes when a ball is thrown upwards

A

Kinetic energy into GPE and thermal

3
Q

Describe the energy changes when an object hits an obstacle

A

Kinetic into Thermal and sound

4
Q

Describe the energy changes in a torch

A

Chemical into electrical into thermal and light

5
Q

State the equation and all units for kinetic energy

A

kinetic energy (J) = 0.5 × mass (kg) × speed2 (m/s)

E = 0.5 x m x v2

6
Q

State the equation and all units for GPE

A

GPE (J) = mass (kg) × gravitational field strength(N/kg) × height (m)

GPE = mgh

7
Q

Define specific heat capacity

A

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of the substance by one degree Celsius.

8
Q

State the units for specific heat capacity

A

J/kg °C

9
Q

Define Power

A

Rate at which energy is transferred into a new form

10
Q

State the equation with all units for Power.

A

Power (W) = energy (J)/ time (s)

P = E/t

11
Q

Define 1 W

A

An energy transfer of 1 joule per second

12
Q

State the conservation of energy

A

Energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated, but cannot be created or destroyed.

13
Q

Define thermal conductivity

A

How well a material can insulate. The higher the thermal conductivity of a material the higher the rate of energy transfer by conduction across the material.

14
Q

What does a larger thermal conductivity mean?

A

cvsvs

15
Q

How can heat loss from a building be minimised?

A

Using thicker walls and materials with a lower thermal conductivity

16
Q

Define efficiency

A

How effective a device is at converting its input energy into a useful output form of energy

17
Q

State the equation for efficiency

A

efficiency = useful output energy / total input energy

18
Q

State the 3 fossil fuels

A

Coal, oil and gas

19
Q

Define a renewable energy resource

A

One that can be replenished and won’t run out

20
Q

State the advantages of fossil fuels

A
1. Reliable
2. Short start up time of a few hours
3. cheap can be used in many locations
21
Q

State the disadvantages of fossil fuels

A
1. Non renewable
2. Will run out
3. Produces carbon dioxide which leads to global warming
4. Causes acid rain
22
Q

State the advantages of nuclear power

A
1. Reliable
2. A very concentrated source of energy
3. No carbon dioxide release
4. Doesn’t cause acid rain
23
Q

State the disadvantages of nuclear power

A
1. Slow start up time of a few days
3. High decommissioning costs
4. Non renewable
24
Q

State the advantages of solar power.

A
1. Renewable
2. Wont run out
3. no fuel cost
4. no cardon dioxide
5. Doesn’t cause acid rain
25
Q

State the disadvantages of solar power

A
1. Unreliable
3. Don’t get much energy so need lots of solar cells
26
Q

A
1. Renewable
2. Wont run out
3. no fuel cost
4. no cardon dioxide
5. Doesn’t cause acid rain
27
Q

A
1. Unreliable
2. Visual pollution
3. Noise pollution
4. Don’t get much energy so need a large area of wind turbines
28
Q

A
1. Short start up time
2. Renewable
3. Wont run out
4. no fuel cost
5. no cardon dioxide
6. Doesn’t cause acid rain
29
Q

A
1. Expensive to build the dam
2. Flooding of surrounding areas
3. Damage to animal habitats
30
Q

A
1. Short start up time
2. Renewable
3. Wont run out
4. Low fuel cost
5. no cardon dioxide
6. Doesn’t cause acid rain
31
Q

A
1. Expensive to drill
2. Only suitable in certain locations
32
Q

A
1. Renewable
2. Wont run out
3. No fuel cost
4. no cardon dioxide
5. Doesn’t cause acid rain
33
Q

A
1. Unreliable
2. Difficult to maintain and repair
3. Restricts shipping lanes
34
Q

A
1. Reliable - as tides can be predicted
2. Renewable
3. Wont run out
4. Low fuel cost
5. no cardon dioxide
6. Doesn’t cause acid rain
35
Q

A
1. Difficult to maintain and repair
2. Restricts shipping lanes
36
Q

A
1. Reliable
2. Renewable
3. Carbon neutral
37
Q

A
1. Release carbon dioxide
2. Takes up land which can be used for crops
38
Q

What are the nine types of energy?

A
1. Kinetic
2. sound
3. light
4. thermal
5. electrical
6. gravitational potential
7. elastic potential (strain)
8. chemical
9. nuclear
39
Q

What is ‘wasted energy’?

A

Energy that is transformed to either the wrong place or the wrong form. This is normally thermal or sound which spreads out to the surrounding .

40
Q

What is ‘useful energy’?

A

The energy transformed to where it is wanted in the form wanted

41
Q

If energy can not be created or destroyed why are we concerned with waster energy?

A

A lot of energy is wasted as thermal which dissipated and spreads out to the surroundings. This energy becomes so spread out it can’t be reused usefully again.

42
Q

What is the equation for work done? Include all units

A

Work done (J) = force (N) x distance in direction of force (m)

W = F x d

43
Q

What is the relationship between work done and energy transferred

A

Work done = energy transferred

44
Q

For a falling object why would the increase in kinetic energy not equal the decrease in GPE?

A

Air resistance/friction would cause some energy to be lost as thermal which would be dissipated to the surroundings

45
Q

Why do falling objects reach different speeds?

A

Different objects have different surface areas, this means a different amount of thermal energy will be lost due to air resistance.

Or difference mass will have different terminal velocities