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Flashcards in English Deck (18)
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the structure of language; how phrases, sentences, and paragraphs are put together.



part of a sentence that must include at least a subject and a predicate.


independent clause/main clause

clause that can stand on its own.


subordinate clause/dependent clause/relative clause

clause that cannot stand on its own. e.g. "which proved the defendents guilt."



a group of words that form a concept, but cannot stand alone as a sentence. e.g. "out of nowhere" and "her blue dress."


declarative sentence

the most common type of sentence, which states something (generally a fact, opinion, or an arrangement. ends with a period.)


imperative sentence

type of sentence that is a command or request. subject is you although it is not always written, but rather implied


interrogative sentence

type of qsentence that asks a question.


exclamatory sentence

type of sentence that emphasizes a declarative or imperative statement with an exclamation point.


simple sentence

type of sentence that consists of just 1 independent clause. Can have a compound subject or verb, and it can include adjectives and adverbs. Only requirement is no dependent clauses, or other independent clauses must be joined by a conjunction.


compound sentence

type of sentence that contains 2 or more independent clauses. Think of it like 2 complete sentences and attaching them together either by a semicolon or one of the "fanboys" - for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.


complex sentence

type of sentence that contains one independent clause and 1 or more depdendent clauses. Linking the dependent clauses = use a subordinating conjunction (long list but some examples are after, until, because, although, since, and while)


compound-complex sentence

type of sentence that contains of at least 2 independent clauses and at least 1 dependent clause. Use compound sentence rule to start: take 2 independent clauses and connect them, then add a dependent clause to one of the independent clauses.
e.g. Since my sister returned from her trip, I've been trying to plan a night with her, but she's always too busy to return my calls.



deals with the meaning of words, rather than the structure



the study of word origin.

Ex: English words, or words that have been adopted into the English language, that originate from the same foreign or ancient language often have similar construction.



the literal definition of a word.
e.g. The tree gave a shady area to sit.



implied or implicit meaning of a word. deliberate.
e.g. There was something shady about him that no one could figure out.


Which of the following sentences uses a denotative meaning of the underlined word?
A. Don't give me any of your *lip.*
B. His teacher secretly felt that he was a little *thick.*
C. The *plot* of the story had some major holes in it.
D. After much deliberation, the committee decided to *shelve* the idea.

C. It is the literal meaning of the word "plot," and denotative meaning is literal meaning.