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Flashcards in English Deck (18)
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1

syntax

the structure of language; how phrases, sentences, and paragraphs are put together.

2

clause

part of a sentence that must include at least a subject and a predicate.

3

independent clause/main clause

clause that can stand on its own.

4

subordinate clause/dependent clause/relative clause

clause that cannot stand on its own. e.g. "which proved the defendents guilt."

5

phrase

a group of words that form a concept, but cannot stand alone as a sentence. e.g. "out of nowhere" and "her blue dress."

6

declarative sentence

the most common type of sentence, which states something (generally a fact, opinion, or an arrangement. ends with a period.)

7

imperative sentence

type of sentence that is a command or request. subject is you although it is not always written, but rather implied

8

interrogative sentence

type of qsentence that asks a question.

9

exclamatory sentence

type of sentence that emphasizes a declarative or imperative statement with an exclamation point.

10

simple sentence

type of sentence that consists of just 1 independent clause. Can have a compound subject or verb, and it can include adjectives and adverbs. Only requirement is no dependent clauses, or other independent clauses must be joined by a conjunction.

11

compound sentence

type of sentence that contains 2 or more independent clauses. Think of it like 2 complete sentences and attaching them together either by a semicolon or one of the "fanboys" - for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

12

complex sentence

type of sentence that contains one independent clause and 1 or more depdendent clauses. Linking the dependent clauses = use a subordinating conjunction (long list but some examples are after, until, because, although, since, and while)

13

compound-complex sentence

type of sentence that contains of at least 2 independent clauses and at least 1 dependent clause. Use compound sentence rule to start: take 2 independent clauses and connect them, then add a dependent clause to one of the independent clauses.
e.g. Since my sister returned from her trip, I've been trying to plan a night with her, but she's always too busy to return my calls.

14

semantics

deals with the meaning of words, rather than the structure

15

etymology

the study of word origin.

Ex: English words, or words that have been adopted into the English language, that originate from the same foreign or ancient language often have similar construction.

16

denotation

the literal definition of a word.
e.g. The tree gave a shady area to sit.

17

connotation

implied or implicit meaning of a word. deliberate.
e.g. There was something shady about him that no one could figure out.

18

Which of the following sentences uses a denotative meaning of the underlined word?
A. Don't give me any of your *lip.*
B. His teacher secretly felt that he was a little *thick.*
C. The *plot* of the story had some major holes in it.
D. After much deliberation, the committee decided to *shelve* the idea.

C. It is the literal meaning of the word "plot," and denotative meaning is literal meaning.