English A2 - The Tempest Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in English A2 - The Tempest Deck (11):
1

1) Prospero as a coloniser

Q - "this island is mine by Sycorax my mother"
Q - "lets visit Caliban my slave [who] does make our fire, fetch in our wood, and serves in offices that profit us"

A03 - "in Caliban, Shakespeare depicts, with almost prophetic insight, the history of the white man's attitude to indigenous populations: the change from kindness to oppression"

A04 - "It has been virtually impossible to dissociate the drama from the discovery of the New World and the colonisation of the Americas" - Diana Devlin
- Our view of Caliban is very much influenced by knowledge of the social context in which the play was written

2

2) Prospero as a sorcerer

Q - "I will rend an oak and peg thee in his knotty entrails until thou hast howled away twelve years"
Q - "Sometime am I all wound with adders, who with cloven tongues, do hiss me into madness"
Q - "graves at my command have waked their sleepers [...] by my so potent art"

A03 - "Prospero's magical practices, however elevated they might appear are in fact as damnable as blackest witchcraft" - Anthony Harris

A04 - Shakespeare found inspiration for Prospero's final invocation of his spirits in the words of the witch Medea in Ovid's Metamorphoses

3

3) Prospero as Shakespeare

Q - "the great globe itself shall dissolve"
Q - "these our actors, as I foretold you, are all spirits and are now melted into air, into thin air"
Q - "we are such stuff as dreams are made on; and our little lives are rounded with a sleep"

A03 - "Throughout the play Prospero uses his powers to control the characters he brings onto the island, making them, in effect, performers in his composition" - Andrew Green

A04 - Shakespeare was at the height of his literary powers, similarly was Prospero who displays his magic in the manipulation of almost every character in the play

4

4) Prospero as benevolent and a liberator

Q - "I do forgive thy rankest fault all of them"
Q - "I shall break my staff, bury it certain fathoms in the earth, and deeper than did ever plummet sound I'll drown my book" - syntactical parallelism

A03 - "the play is about Prospero's own discovery of an ethic of forgiveness, and renunciation of his magical powers" - Madeleine Doran
- "Prospero's great scheme is to bring about repentance and reconciliation" - Stephen Orgel
- "Prospero's art is not only a beneficent magic in contrast to an evil one [...] it is a means of grace"

A04 - John Dee was a scientist but also a magus (someone who dabbled in magic) therefore seen in a positive light

5

5) Prospero as affectionate

Q - "O, a cherubim tho wast that did preserve me. Thou didst smile, infused with a fortitude from heaven"
Miranda is a piece of christian virtue

A03 - "Prospero's art is not only a beneficent one in contrast to an evil one [...] it is a means of grace"

A04 - Divine Right of Kings (James 1) - "supremest thing upon earth", "divine power", "fathers of families"

6

1) Caliban as a monster

Q - "hag-seed", "tortoise", "jesting-monkey", "monster", "devil"
Q - "I must eat my dinner" - governed by his appetite
Q - "All the infections the sun sucks up, from bogs, fens, flats, on Prosper Fall, and make him by inch meal a disease"
Q - "thou didst seek to violate the honour of my child"

A03 - "the play opposes civilised and sophisticated values with 'primitive' existence" - Kermode
- "Caliban is beyond regeneration and the civilising process is infinitely slow" - Anna Larson
- "Has all the discontents and malice of a witch, and of a devil" - John Dryden (1679)

A04 - Caliban is an anagram for cannibal, the word of which was coined to describe an inhabitant of the West Indies, derived from the french word for wild
- Strachey said the islands 'can be no habitation for men, but rather given over to devils and wicked spirits'

7

2) Caliban is naturally subservient

Q - "I'll kiss thy foot prithee be my master"
Q - "freedom, highway, highway, freedom"
Q - "kiss the book"/"celestial liquor"
Q - "I'll be wise hereafter and seek for grace"

A03 - "it is when he learns the ways of men and takes to the bottle that he seems diminished" - Anna Larson
- some critics argue that Caliban has a natural desire to be servile

8

3) Caliban is an oppressed native of the island

Q - "this island is mine by sycorax my mother which thou tak'st from m"
Q - "Sometime am I all wound with adders who with cloven tongues do hiss me into madness"
Q - were I in England now and had but this fish painted not a holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver"

A03 - "Caliban is demoralised, detribalised, dispossessed" - Jonathan Miller
- "it has been virtually impossible to dissociate the drama from the discovery of the new world and the colonisation of the Americas" - Diana Devlin

A04 - Montaigne called into question our confidence in civilisation by suggesting that a 'barbarous or savage' land is only called that because it is unfamiliar to ours
- Shakespeare draws on the discovery of the New World, fascination with the Other

9

4) Caliban shows a gentle, spiritual, noble and generous side

Q - "when thou camst first [...] I loved thee and showed thee all the qualities o'th'isle"
Q - "Be not afeared, the isle is full of noises, sounds, and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not, sometimes a thousand twanging instruments will hum about mine ears [...] the clouds methought would open, and show riches to drop upon me, that when I waked I cried to dream again"

A03 - Coleridge deems Caliban as a noble being
- "Caliban's receptiveness to the island expressed a spirituality which raises him above base humanity" - Diana Devlin

A04 - Montaigne called into question our confidence in civilisation by suggesting that a 'barbarous or savage' land is only called that because it is unfamiliar to ours

10

1) Ariel as Prospero's conscience

Q - "Your charm so strongly works 'em that if you now beheld them your affections would become tender [...] mine would sir were I human"
Q - "His tears run down his bear like eaves of reeds" - simile making it relatable to the everyday life of towns and villages
Q - "this music crept by me upon the waters, allaying both their fury and my passion, with its sweet air"
Q - "nothing of him that doth fade"

A03 - "Ariel embodies the elements of air and fire and is called 'fine apparition'" - Diana Devlin
"the show is a call to repentance issued in the severest possible language" - Kermode

11

2) Ariel as subservient

Q - "All hail, great master, grave sir, hail! I come to answer thy best pleasure"
Q - Prospero calls him "my chick", "my bird" showing a mutual dependence between the two