ENGLISH CRITICS BY CHARACTER AND THEME Flashcards Preview

ENGLISH LITERATURE A2 > ENGLISH CRITICS BY CHARACTER AND THEME > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENGLISH CRITICS BY CHARACTER AND THEME Deck (28):
1

CALIBAN
(Tempest)

“Has all the discontents and malice of a witch, and of a devil” - John Dryden (1679)
“Is certainly not a nice person. - A.D. Nuttall
“Is in some ways a noble being. The poet has raised him far above contempt” - Samuel Taylor Coleridge
“It was Caliban’s childish innocence that first attracted Prospero and now it is his childish lawlessness that enrages him” - Ana Skura
"Caliban proves himself continually more intelligent than Trinculo and Stephano. It is significantly when he learns the ways of men and takes to the bottle that he seems diminished" - Anna Larson (made up name)
"Caliban's receptiveness to the island expresses a spirituality which raises him above base humanity" - Diana Devlin
"Caliban is demoralised, detribalised, dispossessed" - Jonathan Miller

2

Miranda:
(Tempest)


“Does Miranda represent a traditional guileless innocent or a more aggressive girl?” - Stephen Orgel
"Miranda is inexperienced, but not naive, educated but more candid than another young might be [...] she emphasises her chastity as her father would wish, but declares her love" - Frank Kermode

3

Prospero:
(Tempest)

“Is a Godlike being - Keith Sagar

“We feel that Prospero, too, has been forgiven; has served his span of time in limbo” - Matt Simpson

“The most complex change within the play takes place within Prospero himself” - Ian Johnston
Madeleine Doran maintains that the play is about
"Prospero's discovery of his own ethic of forgiveness, and renunciation of his magical powers"

"Prospero's takeover is both racial plunder and a transfer to patriarchy" - Ania Loomba

"Prospero's arts are not only a beneficent magic in contrast to an evil one [...] it is the means of Grace" - Frank Kermode

Pask argues that a number of Prospero's actions in The Tempest are incongruous with the values of the pastoral genre

4

Antonio and sebastian
(Tempest)

“Antonio and Sebastian reveal themselves as darker and more wicked than Gonzalo recognises, using their verbal wit to hide their greedier and more sinister desires” - John Michaels

"The absurdly aggressive behaviour of Antonio and Sebastian makes Prospero's exercise of power seem necessary" - Saunders

5

Gonzalo:
(Tempest)

“Gonzalo dream exists in contrast to the power obsessed ideas of the other characters” - John Michaels

6

Utopias:
(Tempest)

“The perfect island does exist in contrast to the machiavellians of the real world” - Thomas McFarland

a golden world; a place of social harmony where evil is defeated” - Thomas McFarland

“The Tempest is an affirmation of pastoral values that combines Christian and pastoral perspectives” - Thomas McFarland

7

Colonialism:
(Tempest)

“Renaissance Europeans saw natives as the medieval ‘Wildman’ onto which the play’s colonisers can project their darkest yet most compelling fantasies” - Irving Wardle

“The presentation of Caliban as a monster; as "the threatening 'Other' is used by colonial power to display its own godliness and to justify the colonial project morally” - Deborah Willis

"In Caliban, Shakespeare depicts, with almost prophetic insight, the white man's attitude to indigenous populations: the change from kindness to oppression" - Diana Devlin

"It has been virtually impossible to dissociate the drama from the discovery of the New World and the colonisation of the Americas" - Diana Devlin

8

Magic:
(Tempest)

“Prospero’s magical practises are in the final acts as damnable as the blackest witchcraft. - Matt Simpson

“Prospero is a renaissance magus; in contrast to the dark magic of Sycorax” - Frank Kermode

“Through magic and the control of characters, Prospero takes on an almost sadistic quality"- Andrew Green

"The widely varied nature of these sounds and music reflects the changeable and often contradictory nature of Prospero, the ruler of the island, and his domain" - Andrew Green

9

Romance Genre:
(Tempest) (Tempest)

“Presentation of time as regenerative as well as destructive is vital to the play’s progression beyond tragedy” - Sam Brunner

“The play is a romance in that the unhappy events of the early acts mark only the beginning rather than the beginning of the end” - Sam Brunner

the clear ideal of reconciliation grows cloudy as the play concludes” - Stephen Orgel

Matt Simpson questions whether the love between Ferdinand and Miranda is true love:
"their love is of course being made available to us through art, which teasingly requires us to wonder whether it is possible in real life."

10

Comedy Genre:
(Tempest)

Ian Johnston - ‘The Comic Resolution’: “The one great success of the play is the marriage of Ferdinand and Miranda.

“Both the neglectful Duke and the machiavellian King have virtuous children who will redeem them. Shakespeare, in his final play, seems to inscribe hope for the future” - Matt Simpson

11

Fantasy Genre:
(Tempest)

“The play is unrealistic, demanding our imaginative projection into a world free from the constraints of reality” - Sam Brunner

12

Satanist:
(Paradise Lost)

“Satan is superior in character to Milton’s God” - John Carey

13

Theology:
(Paradise Lost)

“God has already foretold the fall. Adam and Eve merely appear free and responsible agents of their own affairs” - Sandra McColley

“She [Eve] who thought it beneath her to worship either Adam or God came to worship a vegetable” - C.S. Lewis

14

Eve:
(Paradise Lost)

“Eve wakes in an independent mood, feels her power, gets her way” - Waldock

'her passions, as a result of her flattery, are ruling her reason'

“Milton has provided Eve with responsible motives for her independent movements” - Diane McColley

“Eve decided that if she is to die, Adam must die with her. I am not sure that critics always notice the precise sin that Eve is now committing yet there is no mystery about it. It’s English name is murder.” - C.S. Lewis

15

Adam:
(Paradise Lost)

“Adam fails because he refuses to divorce Eve; because he wants solace at any price” - Fowler

...like all postlapsarian actions, [our view] is infected by its sinful ground. The love it [Adam's fall] affirms is not free, for Eve has demanded it by dilemma.

“When Adam really does abandon heaven and his knowledge of God, Milton denounces his act. Yet it was, afterall, Milton who imagines his passion so intensely as to make us almost wish it could be approved” - Williams

“Adam fails in becoming Eve’s accomplice” - C.S. Lewis

16

Gender Roles:
(Paradise Lost)

“Traditional manly virtues, and womanly ones, are not strictly divided between them” - Diane McColley

“The story that Milton most notably tells to women is the story of her secondness, her otherness and how that otherness leads inexorably to her demonic anger, her sin, her fall, and her exclusion from the garden of the gods” - Sandra Gilbert

“There appears something of a Turkish contempt of women in Milton’s works, as subordinate and inferior beings” - Dr Johnson 1779

17

Love:
(Paradise Lost)

“Milton presents two quite different models on the politics of love. One is drawn from the experience of being in love with an equal and the mutual surrender of due benevolence. The other from the hierarchical arrangement of the universe and the craving for male supremacy” - Turner

18

Freedom:
(Paradise Lost)

“Eve refuses to let the existence of evil destroy the processes of a free community” - Diane McColley

19

Realism:
(Volpone)

“Jonson presents characters who are typical so that the interaction of characters will be typical of human society” - A.P. Hinchliffe
“The play’s action occurs in a single day because Jonson needed this compression to give events speed and inevitability” - A.P. Hinchliffe

20

Unrealism:
(Volpone)

“The characters of Jonson were incapable of existing outside the world of the play” - Alexander Leggat
“When we read the last act of Volpone, we know we are not seeing life as it is but as it ought to be” - Eric Bentley

21

Theatricality:
(Volpone)

“The audience find the characters of Celia and Bonario boring and uninteresting on stage as they use language in an honest and truthful way, rather than as an actor should: to hide themselves, to deceive” - Alexander Leggat

“Volpone’s real perversion is that he treats life as a play where he can write the script for his own amusement. - Alexander Leggat

“The play within the play presents the point of view from which Jonson is about to launch his satirical attack” - Henry Levin

22

Freedom:
(Volpone)

“Celia is an unwilling prisoner, whereas Volpone is a prisoner by choice” - Frances Teague

23

Satire:
(Volpone)

“The first half of the play revolves around the bed, the second around the court. The true function of both has been perverted” - Edward B. Partridge

“Jonson attempts to generate moral impulses in his audience by satirising a world that has lost all emotional capabilities” - Andrew Hiscock

24

Morality:
(Volpone)

“Their deceptions are a symbol of their moral delusions” - S.L. Goldberg

25

Masculinity:
(Volpone)

“Most of the males in Volpone associate manliness with domination but by the end of the play, Volpone begins to feel his own masculinity threatened” - Huebert

26

Celia:
(Volpone)

“Celia is a strong-minded character who plays not only an pivotal role in the plot but an important thematic one as well” - Maus

27

Bonario:
(Volpone)

“Even Bonario’s apparently noble rescue of Celia is part of a plan to save his inheritance; to ensure his future finances” - Huebert

28

Vice Character:
(Volpone)


“Volpone is a satanic challenger to God’s order and hierarchy” - Knapp
“Mosca acts as a conventional kind of a vice figure” - Wickham