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Should / ought to

"ought to" se refiere a cosas que deberían pasar por que se tiene el derecho o se merece que pasen.

I ought to know if he is seeing someone else = yo debería saber o merezco saber si el está saliendo con alguien más.

-You  can leave out should in:

It's essential that everyone (should) be here on time

-After suggest, you cannot use to. You say:

What do you suggest we should do?

What do you suggest we do?

-You can use should after a number of adjetives, especially:

Strange, odd, funny, typical, natural, interesting, surprised, surprising

It's strange that he should be late.

I was surprised that he should say such a thing.

-You can say (If something should happen...)

We have no jobs at present, but if the situation should change, we will contact you.

-You can also begin with should

Should the situation change, we will contact you.

This means the same as 'If the situation changes,...'

With should, the speaker feels that the possibility is smaller.


Had better / should.

Sera mejor que / Deberia


-Had better vs should.

It's late. You'd better go. / You should go.

(Speficic situation)

-You are always at home. You should go out more often.


-Had better (There is always a danger or a problem if you don't follow the advice.

-Should (only ''it is a good thing to do'')

(In general) Only should

It's a great film. You should go and see it.

(No problem if you don't)

The film starts at 8:30. You'd better go now or you'll be late



-I'd better do something

I'd better go now or I'll be late.

Yes , you'd better.

I had (I'd) better not.

-Had is normally past, but the meaning of had better is present or future, not past.

I'd better go to the bank now/tomorrow.




-At -For the time of day.

At five o'clok

At midnight

At sunset

-On -For days and dates.

On friday

On 16 May 2009

On Christmas Day

-In -For longer periods (months, years, seasons)

In October

In 1998


-We use at/on/in in there expressions:

At night

At weekend

At Christmas

In the morning

In the afternoon

In the evening

On Friday morning

On Sunday afternoon






Go to China

Return to London

Welcome somebody to a place

Did you enjoy your trip to Paris?

Compare to (for movement) and in/at (for position)

They are going to France. / They live in France

Can you come to the party?. I'll see you at the party

We say been to a place or an event:

I've been to Italy four times.

We say get to, but arrive in/at

What time did they get to London?

Arrived in London.

Arrived in Spain.






Pay cash or pay in cash, but pay by credit card.

We use by to say somebody travels:

By car/By train/by plane.

But we say on foot.

We use in for cars and taxi.

By car  but  in my car

By train  but   on the train

Compare by and with:

The door must have been opened with a key.

The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.

We say 'a play by shakespeare'




Shout / throw

Shout at (when you are angry)

He got very angry and started shouting at me.

Shout to (so that they can hear you)

He shouted to me from the other side.

Throw something at somebody (In order to hit them)

Somebody threw an egg at the minister.

Throw something to somebody (for somebody to catch)

She threw the keys to me from the window.



leave (a place) for another place

She left (home) for the office this morning.

Care about somebody/something = think that somebody / something is important

He doesn't care about other people

Care what/where/how... (without about)

I don't care what you do

Care for

-1 Like something (usually negative sentences)

 I don't care for hot weather.

-2 Look after somebody

He need somebody to care for him

Take care of (look after, keep safe, take responsibility for)

I can take care of myself.

I'll take care of the travel arrangements.




-1 Hear about (be told about something)

Did you hear about the fire?

-2 Hear of (know that somebody/something exist)

I've heard of him

-3 Hear from (be in contact with somebody)

Have you heard from Jane recently?

-1 Think about (you consider it, you concentrate your mind on it)

I'll think about it

I've thought about what you said

-2 Think of (the idea comes to your mind)

It was my idea. I thought of it first.

-3 Think of (when we ask or give an opinion)

What did you think of the movie? I didn't think much of it.

-4 You can say think of or think about doing something (for possible future actions)

My sister is thinking of (or about) going to Canada.

-1 I wouldn't dream of doing something (I would never do it)

Don't tell anyone what I sair. No, I wouldn't dream of it. (I would never do it)

-1 Remind somebody about (tell somebody noot to forget)

I'm glad you reminded me about the meeting.

-2 Remind somebody of (cause somebody to remember)

Who does he remind you of?

The house reminds me of the one I lived in.



Sue accused me of being selfish.

His parents don't approve of what he does.

Pay for the meal but pay a bill/fine/fee/tax/rent

What did he die of/from?

Everybody blamed me for the accident

Don't blame it on me

Suffer from an illness.

It depends on the traffic.

You can use depend + when/where/how with or without on

It depends (on) how much it is

It isn't enough to live on.

I congratulate her on doing so well her exams.

I complimented Mark on his cooking skills.



I drop in to see Chris

They were playing cards, so I joined in

The fridge isn't working because you haven't plugged it in

The man said he was a policeman and I believed him.

I was completely taken in. (Deceived)

Gary went to universit but dropped out after a year

I don't want to go, but I can't get out of it now. (Avoid doing it)

There was a beautiful picture in the megazine, so I cut it out




The open air concert had to be called off because of the weather. (cancel it)

We can't put off making a decision. (delay it)

Put on clothe, glasses, make-up...

Also put on weight. I've put on two kilograms.

Tomorrow I'm off Paris = I'm going to Paris

I'm off on holiday = I'm going on holiday

Walk off / Run off / Drive off / ride off (similar to walk away / run away

Diane got on her bike and rode off.

We set off very early. (We left early)

The plane finally took off

We went to the station with her to see her off. (Go with them to the airport/station to say good bye)




Drive on / Walk on /Play on = continue driving..

Shall we drive on to the next station?

go on with / carry on with something

1- Get on = progress

How are you getting on in your new job? = How is it going?

2- Get on (with somebody) = have a good relationship

Richard gets on well with his neighbours.

3- Get on with something =  continue doing something you have to do, usually after an interruption

I must get on with my work. I have a lot to do.

1- Doze = dormitar, sueño ligero

2- Drop = gota, soltar, dejar caer

3- Nod = Inclinar la cabeza, señalar con la cabeza, dar cabezadas.

Doze off /Drop off / nod off = fall asleep

I dozed off in the middle of the lecture.

finish something off = do the last part of something

I finish it off tomorrow

1- Go off = explode

A bomb went off in the city centre.

2- Also an alarm can go off = ring

Did you hear the alarm go off?

Put somebody off (doing something. = cause somebody not to want something or to do something

What put you off applying the job?

Rip = Rasgar

Rip somebody off. = cheat somebody

I think you were ripped off. (fuiste engañado)

Show off = Try to impress people with your ability, knowledge...

He's just showing off.

Tell somebody off = speak angrily to somebody because they did something wrong.

Clare's mother told her off for wearing dirty shoes in the house.



up / down

Let somebody down = disappoint them because you didn't do what they hoped

He'll never let you down

turn somebody / something down = refuse an application, an offer...

I applied for several jobs, but I was turned down for all of them.



Go up / come up / walk up
 = approach

A man came up to me in the street.

Catch up (with somebody) = continue at the same speed or level

You're walking too fast. I can't keep up (with you)

You're doing well. keep it up!

Set up an organisation, a company, a business... start it.

Take up a hobby, a sport... = start doing it

Laura took up photography a few years ago. She takes really good pictures.

Fix up a meeting etc. = arrange it

We've fixed up a meeting for next Monday

Bring up a child = raise, look after a child

She was brought up by her grandparents

Who's going to tidy up? (or tidy it up)

Children under 16 make up half the population of the city. (half the population are children under 16)

Air is made up mainly of nitrogen and oxygen (Air consists of...)

Take up space or time = use space or time

Most of the space in the room was taken up by large table.

Turn up / show up = arrive, appear

We arranged to meet David lost night, but he didn't turn up.

Use something up = use all of it so that nothing is left.

We have a lot of vegetables and I want to use them up






up 2

Bring up a topic etc.. = introduce it in a conversation

Please don't bring it up again.

Come up = be introduced in a conversation

Some interesting points came up in our discussion yesterday.

Come up with an idea, a suggestion etc.. = produce an idea.

Sarah is very creative. She is always coming up with new ideas

Make something up = invent something that is not true

He made it all up.

Clear up = become bright (for weather)

It was raining when I got up, but it cleared up later.

Tear something up = tear it into pieces.

I just tore the letter up and threw it away.

Beat somebody up = hit someone repeatedly so that they are badly hurt

A friend of mine was attacked and beaten up a few days ago. he was badly hurt and had to go to hospital.

Break up / Split up (with somebody) = separate

Sue and Paul have split up.

Do up a coat, a shoelace, bottons etc.. = Fasten (abrochar) Tie (atar)

Do up yout coat before you go out.

Do up a building, a room etc.. = repair and improve it.

The kitchen looks great now that it has been done up.

Look something up in a dictionary etc..

You can look it up in a dictionary.

Put up with = tolerate it

We have to put up with a lot of noise from the traffic.

Hold up a person, a plan etc.. = delay

Don't wait for me. I don't want to hold you up.

Plans to build a new factory have been held up because of the company's financial problems.

Mix up people / things, get people / things mixed up = you think one is the other.

The two brothers look very similar. Many people mix them up. (or... get them mixed up)




Away / back

Get away = escape, leave with difficulty.

We tried to catch the thief, but she managed to get away.

Get away with something = do something wrong without being caught

I parked in a no-parking zone, but I got away with it.

Keep away (from..) = don't go near

Keep away from the edge of the pool.

Put something away = put in the place where it is kept, usually out of sight.

When the children had finished playing with their toys, they put them away.

Throw something away = put it in the rubbish

I kept the letter, but I threw away the envelope

Get back to somebody = rely to them by phone etc..

I sent him an email, but he never got back to me.

Look back (on something) = think about what happened in the past

I didn't like my job very much at the time, but looking back on it, I learn a lot.