Flashcards in ENT 1 Deck (98):
junction where conjunctiva end and cornea begins
what are the 2 types of conjunctiva
palpebral (evert lid)
bulbar (around eye itself)
what is tortuosity of capillaires of the retina associated with?
uneven pupil size, not necessarily pathological
area right underneath the conjunctiva
what can you use to numb the eye?
what is used to check ocular pressure to r/o acute angle glaucoma
reasons to refer to a specialist. Red eye+
eye pain, visual disturbance
should a nonopthalmologist prescribe a topical steroid or steroid/abx combo drops?
No, could exacerbate the problem
types of conjunctivitis
will people with conjunctivits have normal vision?
Yes (may be transient with crusting)
will there be photophobia with conjunctivitis
Mucopurulent discharge, usually unilaterly
most common cause of bacterial conjuncivitis
Gross purulence with bacterial conjunctivis suggests what?
chronic conjunctivitis is usually due to waht?
Staph aureus or moraxella lacunata
Usually bilateral, pre auricular nodes, profuse exudate
chronic conjunctivitis from chlamydia trachomatis
Watery discharge, sometimes mucoid. Unilateral quickly spreading to bilateral. Preauricular adenopathy associated w/ fever, pharyngitis.
most common cause of viral conjunctivitis
bilateral, pruritus, clear tears. Associated with atopic dermatitis.
what connects the eyes to the nose?
what is bilateral sterile conjunctivitis associated with?
What is an example of reactive arthritis
reiter's syndrome (seronegative spondyloarthropathy)
who is reiter's syndrome found in/ symptoms
what other condition is HLA-B27 associated with?
Reiter's syndrome will other have a prior infection with what?
What are the 3 reactive arthritises
Steven Johnson syndrome
what may angioedema of lids bilaterally indicate?
what does unilateral angioedema of lids
local allergenes (topical chemicals, rhus, insect bites)
What is rhus dermatitis
what does edema of the eyes w/o erythema suggest?
Yellow nodule of the scleral conjunctiva
vascularized "redness"; encroaches on cornea, may interfere w/ vision
What are pinguecula and pterygium associated with?
The solution to pollution is...
Usually secondary to trauma. Doesn't cross into iris. Spontaneous with anti-coags. Will include palprebral cojunctiva.
massive subconjunctival hemorrhage may be accompanied by what?
What makes eyes stick out with hyperthyroidism
fat pad takes up space
Usually benign inflammation of superficial episceral vessels. Tender, irritated eyes
what is episcleritis associated with?
underlying ciliary body is inflamed (perilimbal ciliary flush). Photophobia, tearing.
What can cause keratitis
what common causes corneal limbus infiltrate?
Will have photophobia, concomitant HSV, pain precedes rash. Eyes are sore or painful.
Herpes Simplex Keratoconjunctivitis
blood in the anterior chamber
how long does it take corneal abrasions to heal?
2-3 days as epithelial cells migrate very quickly
what makes up the uveal tract?
Will present with pain, photophobia, redness, ciliary flush. Slightly cloudy anterior chamber. Hypopyon
what are some causes of uveal tract dz
Ankylosing spondylitis, JRA, granulmoatous colitis, sprue, TB, sarcoidosis, trauma/ inflammation
Inflammation of the structures of the lid margin: redness, scaling, crusting
what usually causes blepharitis on the anterior lid margin.
Greasy anterior lid scaling
Meibomian gland dysfunction freq.
what is meibomina gland dysfunction associated with?
Acute staphylococcal infection of the meibomian glands
Acute staphylococcal infection of the glands of Zeis or Moll around rashes
External hordeolum or sty
Sterile granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland
Tender, mildly inflamed OR quiet discrete mass
Infection of tear duct on lateral nose.
Purulent matter may be expressed
What type organism usually causes orbital cellulitis?
Gram positive organism
swollen, red eyelids with chemosis, painexopthalmos, fever, leukocytosis
what can orbital cellulitis lead to?
third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve or ophthalmic division of the fifth cranial nerve.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Painful, unilateral red eye, ciliary flush.
Pupil: mid-dilated, fixed.
Cornea: cloudy secondary to edema.
What must IOP be above for acute glaucoma?
>20 mm Hg
what will the patient's vision be like with acute glaucoma
halo around lights
s swelling of the tissue that lines the eyelids and surface of the eye (conjunctiva) (palpebral)
what may precipitate acute glaucoma
Mydriatic activity (dark movie theatre) or stress
most common cause of impaired vision?
Most common cause of impaired vision?
what drugs can lead to impaired vision
with myopia where if the refraction compared to the fovea?
anterior to the fovea
what is "curtain" drawn down over vision
what are 2 anterior diseases that can impair vision?
leading cause of blindness in those over age 50. central vision is impaired
what type disease is macular degeneration
what can cause retinal inflammation
Histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus.
cherry red spot on macula indicates what
central artery retinal occlusion
what are box car veins?
Veins with skips in them
what is associated with central retinal artery occlusion
cherry red spot
box car veins
most common cause of central artery retinal occlusion
vegetations from mitral valve leaflet
Granulomatous inflammation of medium and large arteries in elderly
Giant cell or temporal arteritis
what is giant cell or temporal arteritis associated with
elevated ESR (sed rate)
Inflammation of optic nerve. Loss of color vision. Globe tender and visual field defect.
Tx for optic neuritis
exam is normal, objective measurement intact.
psychogenic impaired vision
Autoimmune inflammation w infiltration of the soft tissues of the orbit
Lid retraction, lid lag, stare, mild protrusion of the eye (proptosis).
Risk factors for graves Dz
hyperthyroid (persistent/ DC ant thyroid drug Rx)
causes of exopthalmos
vascular causes of exopthalmos
carotid-cavernous sinus fistula
cavernous sinus thrombosis
Leading cause of blindness under age 65
2 types of diabetic retinopathy
nonproliferative (generally early form)
proliferative (later stage/ worse prognosis)
have microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, cotton wool infactions, serious and lipid exudates. Intraretinal vascular damage
vascular pathology extending from retina into vitreous cavity. Late stage of dz, worse prognosis.
Fine network of small vessels from optic disc, maj.ret.vessels, or areas adjacent to retinal ischemia.
what is neovascularization seen with?
if iris is involved in proliferative retinopathy, what is there a higher risk of
presents with flame hemorrhage, AV nicking, arteriolar narrowing, increased vascular tortuosity.
a lesion in the optic chiasm leads to what?