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Flashcards in ENT 1 Deck (98):
1

junction where conjunctiva end and cornea begins

limbus

2

what are the 2 types of conjunctiva

palpebral (evert lid)
bulbar (around eye itself)

3

what is tortuosity of capillaires of the retina associated with?

hypertension

4

uneven pupil size, not necessarily pathological

Anisocoria

5

area right underneath the conjunctiva

sclera

6

what can you use to numb the eye?

Tetracaine 0.4%

7

what is used to check ocular pressure to r/o acute angle glaucoma

tonometry

8

reasons to refer to a specialist. Red eye+

eye pain, visual disturbance
corneal damage
acute glaucoma
foreign bodies

9

should a nonopthalmologist prescribe a topical steroid or steroid/abx combo drops?

No, could exacerbate the problem

10

types of conjunctivitis

allergic
viral
bacterial
chemical

11

will people with conjunctivits have normal vision?

Yes (may be transient with crusting)

12

will there be photophobia with conjunctivitis

No

13

Mucopurulent discharge, usually unilaterly

bacterial conjunctivitis

14

most common cause of bacterial conjuncivitis

Pneumococcus
H. aegytpicus

15

Gross purulence with bacterial conjunctivis suggests what?

Neisseria infection

16

chronic conjunctivitis is usually due to waht?

Staph aureus or moraxella lacunata

17

Usually bilateral, pre auricular nodes, profuse exudate

Chlamydial conjunctivitis

18

chronic conjunctivitis from chlamydia trachomatis

Trachoma

19

Watery discharge, sometimes mucoid. Unilateral quickly spreading to bilateral. Preauricular adenopathy associated w/ fever, pharyngitis.

Viral conjunctivitis

20

most common cause of viral conjunctivitis

adenovirus

21

bilateral, pruritus, clear tears. Associated with atopic dermatitis.

allergic conjunctivitis

22

what connects the eyes to the nose?

nasolacrimal duct

23

what is bilateral sterile conjunctivitis associated with?

reactive arthritis

24

What is an example of reactive arthritis

reiter's syndrome (seronegative spondyloarthropathy)

25

who is reiter's syndrome found in/ symptoms

Young men
heel pain
HLA-B27

26

what other condition is HLA-B27 associated with?

Ankylosing spondylitis

27

Reiter's syndrome will other have a prior infection with what?

Klebsiella
C. trachomatis
abdominal infection

28

What are the 3 reactive arthritises

Steven Johnson syndrome
acne rosacea
Reiter's syndrome

29

what may angioedema of lids bilaterally indicate?

systemic allergen

30

what does unilateral angioedema of lids

local allergenes (topical chemicals, rhus, insect bites)

31

What is rhus dermatitis

Poison ivy

32

what does edema of the eyes w/o erythema suggest?

Allergy

33

Yellow nodule of the scleral conjunctiva

pinguecula

34

vascularized "redness"; encroaches on cornea, may interfere w/ vision

Pterygium

35

What are pinguecula and pterygium associated with?

UV exposure

36

The solution to pollution is...

Dilution

37

Usually secondary to trauma. Doesn't cross into iris. Spontaneous with anti-coags. Will include palprebral cojunctiva.

Subconjunctival hemorrhage

38

massive subconjunctival hemorrhage may be accompanied by what?

proptosis
limited EOMs

39

What makes eyes stick out with hyperthyroidism

fat pad takes up space

40

Usually benign inflammation of superficial episceral vessels. Tender, irritated eyes

episcleritis

41

what is episcleritis associated with?

gout
allergic conditions
psoriasis
collagen disease

42

underlying ciliary body is inflamed (perilimbal ciliary flush). Photophobia, tearing.

Keratitis

43

What can cause keratitis

viral
bacterial
sterile
fungal

44

what common causes corneal limbus infiltrate?

S. aureus

45

Will have photophobia, concomitant HSV, pain precedes rash. Eyes are sore or painful.

Herpes Simplex Keratoconjunctivitis

46

blood in the anterior chamber

Hyphema

47

how long does it take corneal abrasions to heal?

2-3 days as epithelial cells migrate very quickly

48

what makes up the uveal tract?

Iris
ciliary body
choroid

49

Will present with pain, photophobia, redness, ciliary flush. Slightly cloudy anterior chamber. Hypopyon

Uveitis

50

what are some causes of uveal tract dz

Idiopathic conditions
Ankylosing spondylitis, JRA, granulmoatous colitis, sprue, TB, sarcoidosis, trauma/ inflammation

51

Inflammation of the structures of the lid margin: redness, scaling, crusting

Blepharitis

52

what usually causes blepharitis on the anterior lid margin.

Staph

53

Greasy anterior lid scaling
Meibomian gland dysfunction freq.

Seborrheic blepharitis

54

what is meibomina gland dysfunction associated with?

Seborrheic dermatitis
acne rosacea

55

Acute staphylococcal infection of the meibomian glands

Internal Hordeolum

56

Acute staphylococcal infection of the glands of Zeis or Moll around rashes

External hordeolum or sty

57

Sterile granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland
Tender, mildly inflamed OR quiet discrete mass
Physically disfiguring

Chalazion

58

Infection of tear duct on lateral nose.
Purulent matter may be expressed

Acute Dacryocystitis

59

What type organism usually causes orbital cellulitis?

Gram positive organism

60

swollen, red eyelids with chemosis, painexopthalmos, fever, leukocytosis

Orbital cellulitis

61

what can orbital cellulitis lead to?

third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve or ophthalmic division of the fifth cranial nerve.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis

62

Painful, unilateral red eye, ciliary flush.
Pupil: mid-dilated, fixed.
Cornea: cloudy secondary to edema.

acute glaucoma

63

What must IOP be above for acute glaucoma?

>20 mm Hg

64

what will the patient's vision be like with acute glaucoma

cloudy vision
halo around lights
N/V/Headache

65

s swelling of the tissue that lines the eyelids and surface of the eye (conjunctiva) (palpebral)

chemosis

66

what may precipitate acute glaucoma

Mydriatic activity (dark movie theatre) or stress

67

most common cause of impaired vision?

refractive error

68

Most common cause of impaired vision?

myopia

69

what drugs can lead to impaired vision

sulfonamides
thiazides
anti-cholinergics

70

with myopia where if the refraction compared to the fovea?

anterior to the fovea

71

what is "curtain" drawn down over vision

retinal detachment

72

what are 2 anterior diseases that can impair vision?

Hyphema
iritis

73

leading cause of blindness in those over age 50. central vision is impaired

macular degeneration

74

what type disease is macular degeneration

retinal disease

75

what can cause retinal inflammation

Histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus.
Immunocompromised patients

76

cherry red spot on macula indicates what

central artery retinal occlusion

77

what are box car veins?

Veins with skips in them

78

what is associated with central retinal artery occlusion

cherry red spot
box car veins

79

most common cause of central artery retinal occlusion

Emboli (a-fib)
vegetations from mitral valve leaflet

80

Granulomatous inflammation of medium and large arteries in elderly

Giant cell or temporal arteritis

81

what is giant cell or temporal arteritis associated with

polymyalgia rheumatica
elevated ESR (sed rate)

82

Inflammation of optic nerve. Loss of color vision. Globe tender and visual field defect.

optic neuritis

83

Tx for optic neuritis

steroids

84

exam is normal, objective measurement intact.

psychogenic impaired vision

85

Autoimmune inflammation w infiltration of the soft tissues of the orbit
Lid retraction, lid lag, stare, mild protrusion of the eye (proptosis).

Graves Dz

86

Risk factors for graves Dz

smoking
hyperthyroid (persistent/ DC ant thyroid drug Rx)

87

causes of exopthalmos

tumor
graves' disease
vascular causes

88

vascular causes of exopthalmos

hemangioma
aneurysm
varices
carotid-cavernous sinus fistula
cavernous sinus thrombosis

89

Leading cause of blindness under age 65

diabetic retinopathy

90

2 types of diabetic retinopathy

nonproliferative (generally early form)
proliferative (later stage/ worse prognosis)

91

have microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, cotton wool infactions, serious and lipid exudates. Intraretinal vascular damage

non-prolifeative retinopathy

92

vascular pathology extending from retina into vitreous cavity. Late stage of dz, worse prognosis.

proliferative retinopathy

93

Fine network of small vessels from optic disc, maj.ret.vessels, or areas adjacent to retinal ischemia.

neovascularization

94

what is neovascularization seen with?

proliferative retinopathy

95

if iris is involved in proliferative retinopathy, what is there a higher risk of

glaucoma

96

presents with flame hemorrhage, AV nicking, arteriolar narrowing, increased vascular tortuosity.

Hypertensive retinopathy

97

a lesion in the optic chiasm leads to what?

bitemporal hemianopsia

98

what can bitemporal heminaopsia be a sign of?

pituiatary adenoma