ENT Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Notes > ENT > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENT Deck (26):
1

Ménière's disease:
Presentation

Fluctuating hearing loss that starts unilaterally
Aural fullness
Attacks that last minutes to hours

Diagnosis needs: x2 attacks lasting at least 20 mins, tinnitus/fullness, sensorineural hearing loss

2

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

Facial nerve herpes zoster
Causing facial paralysis, loss of tastes vestibulocochlear dysfunction, pain

3

Ramsay hunt syndrome:
Tx

Immediate steroids and anti vitals to prevent facial paralysis or hearing loss

4

Tympanic perforation:
Tx

None - will self heal 6-8 weeks

5

Tympanic perforation from otitis media:
Tx

Abx

6

Rinnes test:
Positive

Air conduction is better which is normal

7

Rinnes test:
Negative

Can hear through bone better than through air, which implies conductive hearing loss

8

Webers test:
Sensorineural deafness

Lateralises to unaffected side

9

Webers test:
Conductive deafness

Lateralises to affected side

10

Otitis media:
Presentation and Tx

Bulging tympanic membrane
Abx only if

11

Indications for ABx in sore throat

Systemic upset
Unilateral peritonsilitis
Hx rheumatic fever
DM/ immunodeficiency
3 or more centor: tonsilar exudate, lymphadenopathy, fever, no cough

12

Ménière's disease

Build up of fluid in labyrinth causing vertigo, hearing loss

13

Presbycusis

Age-related sensorineural hearing loss.
Audiometer shows bilateral high frequency loss

14

Otosclerosis

Autosomal dominant
Normal bone replaced by spongey vascular bone
20-40 year olds
Conductive deafness
Tinnitus
Flamingo tympanic membrane

15

Grommet criteria

Bilateral OME lasting 3 months+ with hearing of 25-30 I'm better ear

16

Nasal polyps:
Signs and symptoms

Vary with season or URTI
Rhinitis and sinusitis
Nasal obstruction
Pale/grey
No sensation
Mobile
Unilateral is malignant until proven otherwise

17

Nasal polyps:
Tx

Steroids - Betamethasone 2 weeks, then fluticasone 3 months

Large polyps:
Oral steroids 30mg OD 1 week then fluticasone 3w

Surgery - FESS

18

Rhinitis:
Ix

Rhinoscopy/endoscopy
Skin prick
RAST

19

Rhinitis:
Types

Allergic
Infective
Idiopathic
Drug-induced (aspirin, NSAIDS, contraceptives, beta blockers)
Pregnancy
Auto-immune: SLE, RA, AIDS,

20

Anosmia:
Causes

Obstructive: polpys, tumor, bony deformity
Mucositis (infective): rhinitis, sinusitis
Neurological: MS, aneurysm, surgery, trauma, Parkinson's

21

Cholesteatoma

Tissue collection middle ear

Can be congenital, or acquired due to Eustachian tube dysfunction, tympanic membrane trauma, acute otitis media

Progressive conductive hearing loss ottorhea +-vertigo, headache, facial nerve palsy, neck abscess, meningitis

Tx tympanoplasty/mastoidectomy

Can often recur

If left will invade local structure and can cause permanent deafness, facial weakness, brain abcess, death

22

Hoarse voice:
Causes

URTI
laryngeal cancer
Laryngeal palsy
Vocal nodules
Reflux pharyngitis

23

Laryngeal cancer:
Signs/ risk factors

Smoking
Referred pain to ear - constant
Neck lump
Progressive
Pain

24

Cystic hygroma

From jugular venous sac
Embryological remnant
In posterior triangle usually
Always on the left

25

BPPV

Debris in semicircular canal
Disturbed by head movement, lasts few seconds
Nystagmus seen on hall pike manouevre
Treat with epley manouevre

26

Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma)

Unilateral hearing loss followed by vertigo
Can start to affect other nerves going through auditory canal (5,6,9,10)
Don't always need removing