Haematology Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Notes > Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology Deck (33):
1

Microcytic Anaemia:
Causes

Iron deficiency anaemia
Thalassaemia
Sideroblastic anaemia (rare)

2

Normocytic anaemia:
Causes

Acute blood loss
Anaemia of chronic disease
Bone marrow/renal failure
Hypothyroid
Haemolysis
Pregnancy

3

Macrocytic anaemia:
Causes

B12/folate deficiency
Alcohol/liver disease
Reticulocytosis
Drugs/toxins
Hypothyroidism
Myelodysplastic syndromes
Marrow infiltration
Anti folate drugs eg phenytoin

4

Iron deficiency anaemia:
Signs

Glossitis
Angular stomatitis
Koilonychia

5

Anaemia:
symptoms & treatment

6

Polycythaemia:
Causes

Dehydration (alcohol, diuretics)
Obesity+alcohol+smoking+HTN
Hypoxia (altitude, chronic lung disease, cyanotic heart disease, heavy smoking)
Cancer (over secretion of erythropoietin)


7

Polycythaemia:
Management

Venesection
Daily lose dose aspirin
Hydroxycarbamide (>60 men)
(Interferon childbearing age women)

8

Thrombophilia:
Causes

Post op
Infection
Inflammation

9

Neutrophilia:
Causes

Infection
Vasculitis
Inflammation
Malignancy

10

Lymphocytosis:
Causes

Viral infection
CLL
ALL

11

Lymphopenia:
Causes

Drugs
Infection
Autoimmune (SLE)

12

DIC

Widespread release of proagulants into system causes widespread clotting then use up of all clotting factors and platelets leading to widespread bleeding

13

DIC:
Causes

Malignancy
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetrics

14

DIC:
Signs and Tx

Bruising and bleeding everywhere
Renal failure
⬇️platelets
⬆️PT
⬇️ fibrinogen
⬆️ d dimer

Tx
Replace platelets and clotting factors

15

Von Willebrands Findings

Slightly prolonged APPT
Normal/prolonged PT
Autosomal dominant
Menorhhagia/epistaxis
Factor VIII
petechial rash

16

Unprovoked DVT/PE

3 months VKA

17

Provoked DVT/PE

6 months VKA

18

bilobed large mononuclear cells + bleeding

AML

19

AML

Adults
Auer Rods
DIC/thrombocyotopaenia
bilobed mononuclear
low WCC
low platelets

20

Von Willebrands Findings

Slightly prolonged APPT
Normal/prolonged PT
Autosomal dominant
Menorhhagia/epistaxis
Factor VIII

21

Unprovoked DVT/PE

3 months VKA

22

Provoked DVT/PE

6 months VKA

23

bilobed large mononuclear cells + bleeding

AML

24

AML

Adults
Auer Rods
DIC/thrombocyotopaenia
bilobed mononuclear
low WCC
low platelets

25

Causes of thrombophilia
(most to least common)

Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Antithrombin III deficiency
Antiphospholipid

26

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera

JAK2
hyperviscocity, pruritis after bath, splenomgaly, haemorrhage, plethora
high haemoglobin low neutrophils low ESR

27

CML

Elderly
Well differentiated B cells

28

Factor V Leiden

Activated protein C resistance
Inherited

29

Beta thalassaemia trait

Autosomal recessive
Hypochromic microcytic mild anaemia
HbA2 raised

30

Haemophillia

X-linked recessive
A - Factor VIII deficiency
B - IX

prolonged bleeding, haemarthrosis

31

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera

JAK2
hyperviscocity, pruritis after bath, splenomgaly, haemorrhage, plethora
high haemoglobin low neutrophils

32

tear drop poikilocytes

myelofibrosis

33

Test for spherocytosis

Osmotic fragility