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Flashcards in ENT Deck (36):

what are the signs of a peritonsillar abscess? how do you tx?

sx: ST for several days that has worsened on one side, fullness of anterior tonsilla pillar, uvular deviation from side of abscess, hot potato voice, trismus tx: drainage or aspiration, adequate pain control, abx, tonsillectomy for some. If in back of throat call ENT.


what are these a sign of: high fever, sore throat, dyspnea, rapidly progressive respiratory obstruction and prostatration.presents over 2-4 hours. Look for 4 Ds: drooling, dysphagia, dysphonia-hoarseness, distress/stridor. how do you tx it?

epiglottitis.tx: do not leave unattended in exam room! Establish and maintain airway or all ENT for surfical airway. Give abx and corticosteroids to reduce edema: cefotaxime or ceftriaxone + vancomycin.can give racemic epi. DO NOT LEAVE UNATTENDED. Tx all in householdwith rifampin if they have any other members that are immunocompromised, or if they are not yet completely vaccinated.


stridor, barking cough + steeple sign on CXR. how to tx?

croup. don't do any procedures to make them nervous b/c you can lose an airway. Use racemic epi + dose of steroids. If still hear stridor, keep them overnight.


what should you always check with people with facial trauma? what kind of tests do you do?

ABCs and always check ocular movement and vision for nerve entrapment! always check ocular movement and vision for nerve entrapment! Look at symmetry from top down and down up. Get spiral CT of head, face, and NECK. Get whole spine if you suspect cervical spine fracture.


what kinds of signs might you see in a le fort fracture?

le fort fractures you may see swelling of face, elongated depressed facial features, palpable depressed fractures, CSF may be coming out of nose +/-blood. teeth might not fit togther and there may be a septal hematoma.


what bones are involved in a tripod fracture?

Tripod fracture is a set of 3 bone fractures: maxillary sinus (includees anterior and postero-lateral and floor of orbit), zygomatic arch, and the lateral orbit rim at zygomatico frontal suture. +/- involvement of sphneozygomatic suture.


what kind of tests do you do and how do you tx someone with laryngeal trauma?

chest and c-spine xrays, +/-endoscoy if airway stable or neck CT.. for penetrating and blunt trauma: ABCs, close observation, admit to ICU, best rest with hOB elevated. Voice rest (no whispering!), humdified air, clear liquid diet, steroids possibly in first few days. +/- surgical exploration and repair for penetrating wounds.


what sx will you see with longitudinal or transverse temporal bone fractures?

with longitudinal temporal bone fracture you can have TM bleeding, +/-conductive hearing loss, possible sensorineural loss. With a transverse fractureyou can get the same symptoms plus CSF from nose, loss of vestibular fcn and brusing behind mastoid bone.


which test is not helpful for nasal trauma? which is most helpful? what other things should you check?

X-rays; most helpful is PE. PE best. Look for deformity, septal hematomas,. Make sure they can breathe on both sides and check ocular movements.


how do you identify ludwig's angina? what tests should you do? how to tx?

may have hx of recent dental procedures, URI, resp difficulty, immune compromise or trauma. Usu have mouth pain, drooling, stiff neck, muffled voice. +/- tongue sticking out which is really bad. tests: CT with contrast. tx: abcS. May need trach. Abx to cover anaerobes. Surgical drainage as needed. THINK LUDWIGS ANGINA ANY TIME YOU HEAR TROUBLE SWALLOWING + SWELLING.


what other infection can have the same sx as ludwigs angina of fever, stiff neck, drooling, and dysphagia? ? how do you distinguish the two?

retropharyngeal and prevertebral space abscess. use CT with contrast to distinguish also ludwigs angina would have more swelling. you tx them the same with ABCs, abx and surgical drainage.


what's in the ddx for ST?

viral pharyngitis MC, bacterial pharyngitis, mononucleosis, peitonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, candidiasis, sinusitis (PND), allergy, dryness, GERD, thyroiditis, epiglottis laryngitis, neoplasm/cx, foreign body, chemical exposure, referred pain (dental, ear, LN, chest) influenza


what are the center criteria/indicaitons for rapid strep test?

indications for rapid strep test: fever by hx, tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, exudate on tonsils, lack of cough +/- exposure to strep, odynophagia HA, nausea, vomiting and/or abdominal pain, rash


what's the tx and pt ed for mono?

tx: mostly non pharm and pt ed: rest, fluids, analgesics. Can use abx for strep throat but they'll get a rash. pt ed: contagious via saliva. If splenomegaly can't play contact sport for at least 7-8 wks, 4 wks can do sports, just not contact. Reevaluate.the fatigue can linger for 2-3 mo.but the sore throat will only last 1-2 wks.


signs/sx of epiglottis

high fever, sore throat, dyspnea, rapidly progressive respiratory obstruction and prostatration.presents over 2-4 hours. Look for 4 Ds: drooling, dysphagia, dysphonia-hoarseness, distress/stridor


how do you distinguish croup from epiglottiis?

there will be more reps distress in epiglottis, there will be drooling, abscensce of barking cough. croup preceded by URI.


what's on your ddx for neck mass?

how old? How long has it been there? Pain? Cough? Bleeding? Do they smoke or drink? Other medical issues? Size?consistency? Where is it?
ddx: infectious/inflammatory: LAD from virus, fungus, bacteria, TB, abscess, sialadenitis (swollen saliva gland) congenital: thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, dermoid neoplastic masses benign: lipoma, schwannoma (nerve tumor), salivar gland tumor, thyroid tumor, neoplastic masses malignant: metastatic squamous cancer, lymphoma, salivary gland cx, thyroid cx


what are important questions to ask someone with a neck mass?

how old? How long has it been there? Pain? Cough? Bleeding? Do they smoke or drink? Other medical issues? Size?consistency? Where is it? Prior tx for anything? Travel? Pets? (toxoplasmosis), inciting events. Wt loss? Dysphagia, hoarseness (>2-3 wks), hemoptysis, fever (infection), chills, sweats, frequent uRI or strep throats? previous masses? tobacco and etoh use (synergistic=25x more likely to have cx, sexual partners (HPV), work history


which neck mass is in the center of the neck, usu comeson after a URI, moves with swallowing, and is usu non tender unless infected. is it worrisome?

its a thyroglossal duct cyst, not worrisome, its congential


what is the tx for masses in thyroid and parotid gland?

surgery is mainstay


what's the last resort for biopsying masses in throat?

open biopsy b/c you can change the way their lymph nodes drain and its hard to know where the cx could go next. fine needle aspiration is best.


what are the RFs for head and neck cx?

etoh, smoking synergism of these, betel nut, HPV (on the rise), general sources of inflammation


which cx patients are most likely to commit suicide?

those with head and neck cx


what are worrisome signs or sx of head and neck cx?

any of the following lasting 3 wks or more: hoarseness, hemopytsis, dysphagia, odynophagia, oral bleeding, ST, loose tooth not explained by trauma, otalgia, lumps/bumps in Hand N area, cranial nerve dysfcn--NEEDS IMMEDIATE CONSULT.


how do you tx head and neck cx?

5 year survival rate is 61%! Can do surgical extirpation (cut out) and radiation=mainstay. +/- chemo. Need reconstructive surgery. Can do radiation or surgery alone for earlydisease (TNM I or II). Need chemo and surgery for TNM III or IV. Req's 7-8 wks of daily tx. novel approaches of transoral laser and robots. mets first to cervical LN. need to remove these too. can inject a dye, see what node it goes to first, and remove that "sentinel node" to be safe.preseve cranial nerves!


what are the two objective tests used to measure infants hearing and those up to 6 mo?

auditory brainstem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emissions testing (OAE)


what type of hearing procedure is used for someone 6 mo to 3 yo of age?

visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) an animal will light up when the kid looks


what kind of hearing test is used for someone 3-6 yo age?

conditioned play audiometry: the place a peg in a board when they hear the sound


what's the range of decibels for normal hearing?

-10 to 20 decibels


how many hours do you have before hearing loss is permanent?

13 dyas


what dz do these sx signify?

xerostomia, keratoconjuctivitis sicca (def of tear production=dry eyes), parotid gland swelling, sublingual gland swelling= cotton mouth and trouble swallowing dry food or burning/itching or foreign body sensation. dry ness can effect other areas: painful intercourse, dysphagia. other systemic sx: small vessel vasculitis, obstructive airway dz, ILD without hx of smoking.


what are possible PE and lab findings in someone with sjogre's syndrome?

elevated ESR, hypergammaglobulinemia. +Rh factor. +ANA presentce of anti-SS-A and Anti-SS-B. bx of lip will show lymphocytic infiltratio and ductal hyperplasia. Schirmer's test of putting filter paper in mouth will show that


what's suppurative parotitis? what pathogen usu causes it? who is at risk?

acute infectin of parotid gland. usu d/t staph aureus or anaerobes. Rsf: usu in elderly post op with dejydration or h/o intubation. anticholingeric use, malnutrition, salivary calculi, oral neoplasm


what are the RFs for glossitis?

nutritional deficiencies (iron, vit b12, folic acid), dry mouth (sicca sx), sjogren syndrome, oral candida infection, protein calorie malnutrition in older pops, celiac dz, injury/trauma or poor fitting dentures, rough teeth, trauma, burns, tobacco, alcohol


who is most likely to get herpetic stomatitis? what are some of the signs or sx? how is the dx made? tx?

usu kids; may have hx of pharyngitis. Drooling, vesicular lesions, shallow ulcerations. LAD. Fever, irritability, pain, decreased eating. dx clinical +/- viral serology. tx: fluids, pain relief, self limited to 7-14 days, antiviral if present within first 72-96 hours (acyclovir)


how do you tx canker sores?

self limited to 10-14 days, can do a topical steroid orabase or topical anesthetic. Use good hygiene, tx undelrying dz.